The development of technology and globalization has positive and negative impacts on policing activities in national and international arena. Even that needs further research.
Transnational policing is mostly taking as a solution to organized crime that was beyond one state to eradicate the crime. Today’s organized crime involves activity in more than one country and therefore, to tackle it successfully, police should need to frame cooperation partners across borders to share intelligence, coordinate operations, secure evidence, and to control suspects. A similar agreement has been made about the changing character of terrorism, it has become more transnational in scope, involves an exaggerated world conspiracy, states are in the needed one in transnational police cooperation. Based on the review of three articles and one journal namely the organization of organized crime, local policing and transnational organized crime, policing and society and transnational policing. Focusing on these review articles the writer tried to identify what a positive and negatives are in the articles, as a result the reviewer have put them individually criticisms them and even these reviews are written carefully and precisely by famous individuals the reviewer able to understand some defects that must be fulfill on the article of review.
The need of transnational policing organization is in the case of transnational organized crimes and the horrible of terrorism in the world. Such a crime was not constrained by national boundaries and the ways the people understand the police cooperation with organized crimes were the points rise here.
Purpose of the article review, the purpose of this article is to indicate the gape of local organized crime, trance national organized crime, technological advancement in the globalized world and policing activities by the different authors in different perspectives. It is to raise the short comings of the research both in its methodology and other requirements for the research and finally to recommend the shortcomings what I have understood.
The objective of the article review
- To indicate the observed problems of the four review articles.
- To create awareness for other practitioners and researchers what problems and shortcomings of the review.
- To recommend for the owners of the article to fulfill or to articulate the whole critics given to their journal.
The general description of the ongoing debates was local organized crime and trance national organized crimes. The ideas that come to our mined, is there possibilities to form international police which is accommodated the social, political and economical aspects of people of the world?
These are some of the challenging points in policing activities in the world.
The main debate of the article review here is on the policing activities that obstacles in the domestic as well as international arena. So that to show how to formulate the cooperation and coordination of the world policing activities for the efficient and effective duty. Organized crime is manly qualified in terms of great extent conspiracy; ethnic grouping; socio-political elites and state-organized crime; professional or white-collar crime; ongoing illicit business enterprises; a global phenomenon; a core threat to democracy; and, increasingly, as having a terrorist nexus (e t al ). Organized crimes are the common threat of the world but still not with common solutions. So that it needs, collaborative and coordinated effort is needed to transform totally and differing national capacities and capabilities into an effective multilateral mechanism in opposition to organized crime and so appropriately formalize and formalized crime policing in its international context. Therefore, a collaborative and coordinated effort is required to translate different and differing national capacities and capabilities into an effective multilateral mechanism against organized crime and so appropriately organize structured crime policing in its international context. The question arises, given the uncertainty of definition, the variation in perception and premise, and the inherent complexity of multi-layered, multi-actor collaboration, to what extent effective or even efficient organization of organized crime policing is possible at all (e tal).
Summary of the articles
1st On local policing and transnational organized crime, author Stan Gilmour and Robert France published online 09 sep, 2011
This paper is associated with crime management models, the writers set different national intelligence models that can used to manage crimes locally and the cross-border setting levels.
The objective of the study is to associate the crime management models of intelligence-led policing, problem-solving policing and goal-oriented policing.
The central idea of the journal is, crime management must be based on the resources we have, otherwise, there is a failure.
Critics, The word silo culture is not defined and as a result it is not clear what and to whom the silo culture is referring. No acknowledgment is expressed in the article
They missed how to handle the cross borders (transnational) crimes and by whom do the activities of arresting, investigating, judging functions. The writers missed the transnational policing activities and the resource allocation to the trance national crimes. To conclude on the local policing, and transnational organized crime, it is needed the cooperation and coordination of other actors to tackle organized crimes.
2nd /The author and his review, year of study=Clive Harfield, The organization of organized crime policing 2008 VOL: 8(4):483-50.1
The objective of the study; to indicate about policing of organized crime whether it is the role of law enforcement organ or the responsibility of individuals of the international community.
The central idea of the review, in order to police we must know what is going to be policed, this review recommends that since organized crime becomes further than the competence of a single nation it needs partnership since it is global phenomenon, and organized crime is more than just the function of law enforcement agencies. To do that it is needed to distinguish the crime whether it is international crime or transnational crime.
The methodology he used= was descriptive because the writer used the available facts and makes critical evaluation
Critics to the review article, the Significance of the study is not clearly shown
-Background of the study is not expressed
There is no operational definition; he says that terrorism is one type of organized crime but there is no definition of terrorism since terrorism is defined in different ways in a given country, as a result it was better to give his term of definition to the word of terrorism based on his article context.
There is no acronym for the abbreviated words.
Some sources that he used in the paper as a reference is not shown in the final reference material for example; http://www.faff.gafi.org (p 495)
3rd / The author and his year of study=Alice Hills VOL.19, NO. 3 2009, Policing and Society
The objective of the study; to indicate the possibility of international policing.
The central idea of the review; there is no single culture in any one police organization and no transnational consensus on what is necessary for effective policing and each country assumes that its own practices are appropriate. According to this journal police forces must co-operate if they are to respond effectively to the crime and insecurity facilitated by globalization.
Variety types of bilateral, multilateral and international cooperation are encouraged by intergovernmental organizations.
Critics to the journal; Its purpose is not clearly addressed.
The methodology used is not clearly shown
The significance of the study is to indicate international police organization.
4th / The research journals author, and his year of study, Ben Bowling, transnational policing. Year of study, 2009
The purpose of the study, to indicate how much collaboration of policing is needed in international boundaries,
The central idea of the review, organized crime participates in an activity in further than one country, and therefore to tackle it successfully, police should aware to cooperative partners across borders. At present the collaboration of policing in the international boundaries become accepted as a reality, and is also taken as a solution for organized crime cooperation of this policing is to tackle organized crime, to secure evidence, to share intelligence, to coordinate operations, and to capture suspects.
Critics to the journal of research, even though it is well again than the other reviews in all aspects of its writing system it also has its own defects.
There is no acknowledgment
No acronym of the abbreviated words is shown
Mostly the review articles are dealing with policing practices around the world and recommend to have cooperated policing system especially for tackling organized crimes, securing evidence, to capture suspects, conclusively the above articles agree to have cooperated police in the world if not they recommend that the purpose of policing may not success, also open very good experience to the international community, but as a research journal the writing style has its own weakness, the majority of the above articles didn’t show the significance, background, objective and acronym (to the abbreviated words they used). The research articles on policing have no acknowledged to anyone except the article review on local policing and transitional organized crime. In my dealing on the articles that have defects and other writers may observe it on another side.
In some of the articles, their title and the ideas they write are so far.
The purpose of the articles and methodology is not clear in my understanding.