This essay will conduct a literature review to support the claim that women speak more politely than men.
Brown, P. (1980). ‘How and why are women more polite: Some evidence from a Mayan community Women and language in literature and society’. In this article, he discussed the differences in males and females with respect to language. There’s not much difference in the language of both men and women except with the social relationship and social status. The communicative strategy was used to see the difference between the languages. This strategy relates language and society with each other. In this view, the ethos of women is tied to culture and social structure. Through this strategy, it is also find that how the social relationships and social structure affect the language of women. Women will behave similarly at the strategic level.
There are not linguistic similarities between West African women or high caste Indian women and Tenejapan women. But there are similarities between language usage of Tenejapan women and other peasant women in small societies. There are two hypotheses that are made through this research. First is the negative politeness. It means that if women are inferior in society then their language will be also less powerful. Second is the positive politeness. It means that if any member has a close relationship with so many people, then that relationship involved the whole person. If female relationships are multi-stranded, then they are politer.
Hang, Y. S. (2009) ‘Do females speak more politely to females among Hong Kong young generations’. The study in this research article shows that women speak politer or courteously to women listeners than to men listeners amongst young era in Hong Kong. Moreover, one thrilling finding may be discovered in this research no matter what the gender of the speakers is, they both speak politer to women. This affords a distinct locating in opposition to the beyond researches which best focus at the gender of the speakers. Moreover, this additionally offers a perception to us that the gender of the listeners is also the essential factor affecting the politeness conduct of the speakers.
Besides, the politeness techniques exchange with the relation between the individuals and the listener. Participants behave greater with politeness to strangers than to their pals. Moreover, they deal with the strangers in the comparable way and therefore in the case, gender of the strangers become much less crucial to cause the exchange of the politeness conduct of the speakers.
Mahmud, M. (2015). ‘Language and gender in English language teaching’. In the journal, he focused on effect of gender differences in the language and communication on the means the students of both gender learn English. In most of the cases, female students feel shy to express their ideas in English language even when they can do. Generally, they prefer to express their ideas in the form of a written document instead of oral presentation. On the other hand, male students use their English speaking ability as the way to show their status as men, irrespective of the female students they don’t feel any hesitation.
According to Connell ‘the use of language is designed by the relation of power’. Learning of a language is the characteristics of species which strengthen the whole culture. Gender is considered as a significant aspect in the Bugis society in the communication of men and women. For them social status influences their gender performance in language. More intensive observation is suggested on the learning styles in order to find their various expressions and achievements.
Ide, S. (1990) ‘How and why do women speak more politely in Japanese’. In this article, he investigates the basic features of the politer nature of women are explored and described qualitatively as well as quantitatively in this paper. The sex difference of a speaker in the choice of linguistics form is considered as a general question in theories of linguistic politeness and complex variables. Linguistics politeness of Japanese is described by the term ‘discernment’. And this term plays a vital role in the theories of linguistic politeness in the literature of west. As the discernment concerns with the suitable choice of politeness level I was able to collect quantitative data from large scale and express the politeness level of both the genders quantitatively. The basic features of politer speech of the women are described qualitatively and quantitatively as below: “Features of women politer speech: negative politeness, deference, use of higher linguistic forms owing to higher assessment of politeness level toward the addressee (first stage variable), repertoire of pronouns of more formal forms, use of sentence final particles wa and kasira. Demeanor use of linguistic forms of politeness level higher than the associated politeness level of the addressee in the interactional domain of sociable/civil activity (second stage variable), absence of deprecatory level of first and second person pronouns, avoidance of vulgar expressions, beautification/hyper corrected honorifics. Positive politeness: use of feminine sentence particles wa and no”.
Beeching, K. (2002) ‘Gender, politeness and pragmatic particles in French’ . In this book, the chapter first has further subtopics quite associated with my research question. I can take information whether or not women communicate polite or men through the subject “Introduction of Gender, politeness and pragmatic particles”. As there many linguist focuses on gender politeness that who speaks more politer men or women here Marquez mentioned about the 4 virtually distinct perspectives of politeness. The social view, the conversational maxim view, the face saving view and the conversational-agreement he stated according to these views women are extra politer than men. Another linguist labov also stated that women talked cautiously and use fewer stigmatised paperwork than men and he also stated that women are lots sensitive than men to the status sample.
Jesperson another linguist claims that once women upload or locate euphemistic manner of describing positive body elements or sure herbal capabilities they avoid the direct and impolite denominations which men and specifically younger men, prefer among themselves. Coates also found that the overlapping is the feature of women’s talk which is absent in British men’s conversation. Men don't provide minimum feedback and frequently do't reply in any manner to different's remarks. They disagree very at once and bluntly with others statements. They Abuse each other and criticize each other very immediately. They seem to switch topics suddenly and without regard for the preceding speaker's topic.
Mills, S. (2003) ‘Gender and politeness’. In this book, the chapter 'Gender and Politeness' has further subtopics quite related to my research question. I can easily take information about women speak politely as compared to men or not. He discussed the elements of linguistic behavior that have regularly been stereotypically related to women: compliments and apologies: and he analyses extracts from conversational information with a purpose to task any simple view that women are always constantly extra polite than men. Women linguistic behavior is often characterized as being involved with cooperation and avoidance of conflict. This characterization is based totally on the assumption that women are powerless and show their powerlessness in language: those sorts of politeness are markers of their subordination.
Penelope Brown discussed in his works on the analysis of politeness amongst a Mayan community, argues that women are well-known are politer than men. She states that during maximum of cultures women among women can also will be predisposed to use more elaborated tremendous politeness techniques than men do amongst men. Her standard model of politeness is one associated with care of others: what politeness basically is composed in is a special way of treating humans, announcing and doing things in the sort of manner as to don't forget the opposite person's feelings. On the entire meaning that what one says civilly might be much less sincere or more complex than what one might say if one wasn't taking the opposite character's emotions into account.
Gavenila, E. I., Arsa, Y., & Pasaribu, T. A. (2019) ‘Directive forms Expressed by Male and Female Respondents in Different Situational Contexts’. In this article, he explains women and men who come from the identical speech community with distinct social lessons may additionally use one of a kind linguistic forms in expressing directive messages. The records additionally recommend that men are extra sincere in turning in directive messages. Another noteworthy locating is that women dominantly express the usage of interrogative and declarative forms. Interrogative and declarative bureaucracy are taken into consideration politer and much less direct. Women tend to store their faces via the usage of politer paperwork because they do no longer need to be taken into consideration impolite.
This is strongly related to politeness strategies which are ordinarily followed by means of women than men Different responses are grounded in social-cultural narratives concerning one of a kind social variables inclusive of social magnificence, the connection between individuals, and ritual. More extreme research must be carried out to analyze the hyperlink among language and other social dimensions because this research is restrained to the small number of participants and contextual settings. The interested researcher can check out the connection among language and social variables via natural statistics in every day verbal exchange. Moreover, language users additionally want to be more aware of the significance of social dimensions and emotional feelings in conversation.
Al-Marrani, Y. M. A., & Sazalie, A. B. (2010) ‘Polite Request strategies by male speakers of Yemeni Arabic in male-male interaction and male-female interaction’. In this article, he discussed the belief of polite request techniques as utilized by male speaker of Yemeni Arabic in the identical gender and cross gender Male speaker of Yemeni Arabic inside the same gender employed high degrees of directness without the fear of dropping 'face'. This isn't indicating the correctness of directness in 'near' social distance relationships, however in all likelihood the fact that it's far the expected behavior in such situations. The use of direct method by means of male speakers of Yemeni Arabic within the same gender can be attributed to the closeness and the harmony among the interlocutors. Also it became discovered that there's a well-known trend in Yemeni Arabic for better tiers of indirectness in male-woman interactions. The use of oblique approach by using male speaker of Yemeni Arabic cross gender can be attributed to subculture and spiritual values.
Buda et al. (1998) have pointed out that there are unique linguistic utterances that men use when addressing women, and vice versa in Arabic, because of cultural and religious values. In quick, the preference for direct requests in male-male interactions appears to be an instance of team spirit or tremendous politeness among interlocutors. In male-female interactions, the requesters used independence politeness strategies to mitigate and melt the effect of request and to reveal them appreciate for ladies in Yemeni society according to Islamic values. Native speakers of Yemeni Arabic used direct requests with softeners softness in an excessive frequency to mitigate their requests. Also it proves that imperative shape isn't always as rude in Yemeni Arabic as it's miles in English or some other language. Direct requests are classified in Yemeni Arabic as cohesion politeness strategies because they suggest that the speaker assumes handiest a small social distance among him/herself and the interlocutor.
Subon, F. (2013) 'Gender differences in the use of linguistic forms in the speech of men and women in the Malaysian context'. He explains that according to the past researchers it has been revealed that there are differences in the speech of men and women regarding linguistics feature. Directness in speech might have similarity and a usual difference is seen in addressing, humor, questions, politeness and the different topics of conversation. But there is no difference in the use of intensifiers. This study is not valid for the people of other regions belonging to different races because the data provided by the researchers was only of the 5 men and 5 women living in Siburan District. It may be different from men and women of other towns, cities and countries because these Kuching have their own kind of characteristics and the other reason is, it’s too small sample to study the whole population.
Canary and Hause cited in Mulac that they have not found any consistency related to the differences in the communication strategies of men and women. But this study helped us in getting more information about the linguistics features and the difference in communication way so that’s why we are able to introduce it among the people. The understanding between the differences in speech helps in effective communication and the better understanding between the men and women. According to the Conflict Research Consortium, USA, in an article “it was emphasized that the best way to cross cultural communication is knowledge”. So that’s why it’s being appreciated because the knowledge about differences in linguistics features for men and women will lead to the respect for one another.
Holmes, J. (2013) 'Women, men and politeness'. In this book, the chapter 'sex, politeness and language' has further subtopics quite related to my research question. I can easily collect information about whether females speak polite or males through the topic 'Why do men and women interact differently” which basically focuses on the analyzing linguistic politeness. The question is deceptively easy. The answer, through comparison, is very complex as this e book illustrate. He stated that when a sociolinguist is asked this question her first reaction is to mention 'it depends what you suggest by using politeness, it additionally depends at the context wherein they are speaking'. Considerations consisting of those mean that any answer wishes to be hedges and certified in all kinds of ways. But possibly he says proper on the outset that, while all the vital reservations and qualifications have been taken into consideration, he assume yes, women are more well-mannered and polite.
Over a few years, women have verified a bonus over men in checks of fluency, talking, sentence complexity, analogy, listening, comprehension of each written vocabulary, and spelling. By evaluation men are more likely to stutter and to have reading disabilities. They also are much more likely to go through aphasia speech issues after brain harm. Overall men are sincerely at a bonus in terms of verbal skills, specially to begin with. But women and men also use language differently. And this is wherein variations in politeness can be determined. Most women experience communicate and regard talking as an important manner of maintaining in touch, especially with pals and intimates. Men have a tendency to look language extra as a tool for obtaining and conveying facts.