Principle of the Philosophy of Pragmatism Method of Teaching: Analytical Essay
According to (Victor Ordonez November 2000)Education is a social responsibility for the transmission of knowledge, skills, and culture with a formally organized structure. The development of human talents and personal characters for better citizenship.
Philosophy is a well-coordinated and systemized attempt at evaluating life and the universe as a whole, concerning first principles that underlie all things as their causes and are implicit in all experience (Swimi Krishnananda)
Is a branch of philosophy that addresses philosophic questions concerning nature, aim, and problems of Education. as a practical branch of philosophy, its practitioners look both inwards to the parent discipline of philosophy and outward to educational practices, as well as to developmental psychology, cognitive science more generally, sociology and other relevant disciplines.
`It is a temper of mind, an attitude, it is also a theory of the nature of ideas and truth; and finally, it is a theory of reality. It’s an educational philosophy that says education should be about life and growth. That Is teachers should be teaching students things that are practical for life and encourage them to grow into better people. Pragmatism believes people should deal with problems more practically than theoretically (William James 18 October 2018). The term Pragmatism is derived from the Greek word” pragma” meaning activity or work done. Others believe it’s derived from “pragmatikos” meaning practicability or experimentation (William James). The pragmatists in a former school pay attention to idealism, emotionalism, rationalism, and optimism. It emphasizes creativity if people ( pdf ).
Pragmatism aims to:
According to Dewey students/pupils need to learn by doing, and then reflect upon what they did. Through inquiry, inductive reasoning, and active learning, the student will become a capable and confident adult. He believes schools treated children as dump and passive learners, instead, he proposed students be thought to be problem solvers. They shouldn’t be given a’ set of notes’ but be thought to problem solve and develop their knowledge that is relevant to the way they live right now not only in the future state.
The principle of the philosophy of pragmatism method of teaching is practical utility. The child is the control centre. This method proposes that the learner should learn through personal experiences. Education is not so much teaching the child what he ought to know, as encouraging him to learn for himself through creative activity ( Brank 1910). By so doing the learner will develop creativity and be able to cooperate. Teachers are required to suggest and prompt only. The teacher suggests problems then leave the learners to solve the problem themselves. To facilitate this discovery the application of the inductive and heuristic methods of teaching is necessary. (Devi, article page 1554).
Dewey senses the sensitivity of education towards learners’ needs and their independent differences. Teachers should realize there is no one-for-all concept of teaching and learning. Teachers should plan according to aptitude, learners’ former experience, and their present experiences. The teacher should observe the interests, observe the direction they want to take then help them develop the method to solve the problem.
‘The purpose of the teacher is to increase freedom of the children to enable them to explore their environments’ he believes in an interdisciplinary curriculum, or a curriculum that focuses on connecting multiple subjects, where students are allowed to freely move in and out the classroom, as they pursue their interest and construct their path for acquiring and applying knowledge. It is therefore the responsibility of a teacher to plan positive and construct environments for the students to create positive educative experiences for them.
Naturalism is a philosophy with a belief that nature alone represents the entire reality. it is concerned with the ‘natural self ‘it contends that the ultimate reality is a matter, and not mind and spirit. It does not believe in spiritualism. It denies the existence of a spiritual universe-the universe of ideas and values. It emphasizes that instincts are responsible for all our activities – biological, psychological or social. Values of life are created by human needs. Man creates them when he reacts to or interaction with his environment (Nanelyn Bontoyan).
Naturalism lays stress on self-expression and self-preservation. Education should acquaint a person to earn living and train of health to preserve and maintain life.
His instincts are the guiding force and basis for all human conduct. The aim of education should be the re-direction and sublimation of these instincts towards socially useful work .fulfilments of individual and social needs through nature.
It should help children to adjust themselves, physically and mentally to their environment and the changing circumstances of life.
It aims at developing the child into a joyous rational, balanced useful, and mature person.
Learning should be done by doing, play way, method, observation, experimentation, govern self. According to Rousseau, ’students should not be given any verbal lesson rather they should be thought experiences alone. The teacher tries to give lots of hands-on training and practical experiences. Education should proceed from simple to complex concentrate to abstract.
The teacher is always behind the screen. He is a spectator or an observer. He plays his role behind the scene and does not interfere in students’ activities. The teacher acts as a facilitator, a setter of the stage, and as a supplier of material and opportunities. The teacher does not interfere with nature but rather cooperates with the ebb and flaws of nature. Rousseau opines that teachers should not be in a hurry to make a child learn, instead be patient, permissive and non-intrusive.
What works best It is without a doubt that the world is a work in progress. As our society changes, the needs and outlook in life of the people also evolve. Nothing is permanent, so they say. This inevitable change then gives way to a continuous reconstruction of existing realities in order for us to cope with our unending demands. Here, comes the substantial role of pragmatism as a philosophical basis of rejecting or embracing ideologies solely for the betterment...
Ethics The word “ethics” is taken from the ancient Greek word known as ēthikós (ἠθικός), which means relating to one’s character. Ethics is a branch of philosophy that includes systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of wrong and right. Ethics, aesthetics, and matters of value comprise the branch of philosophy known as axiology. Pragmatism Pragmatism is derived from the Greek word “pragma” which means action/affair. Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that first appeared in the United States during the time period...
Pragmatic theories of truth are usually associated either with C.S. Peirce’s proposal that true beliefs will be accepted “at the end of inquiry” or with William James’ proposal that truth be defined in terms of utility. More broadly, however, pragmatic theories of truth focus on the connection between truth and epistemic practices, notably practices of inquiry and assertion. Depending on the particular pragmatic theory, true statements might be those that are useful to believe, that are the result of inquiry,...
‘Modi has articulated India’s concerns and interests without falling into the familiar ideological traps that Delhi used to set for itself ’ What is Pragmatism? ‘pragmatism’, as applied to shifts in India’s post-Cold War foreign policy, has generally been interpreted substantively: that is, to denote a foreign policy that has expunged one form of ‘content’ (earlier ideational frameworks) and adopted a new ‘content’, namely a set of realist assumptions that frame the national interest in terms of material power. The...
Pragmatism is the Theory that the intelligence function is not to know to find, but to know to act. William James defended an idea is true only when it has been proven, but can he argue that an idea is only true because it is already true. We can also understand that an idea is true only if it is useful, which may mean that any idea is born of a practice, that is to say that abstract representations of...
The real purpose of education is to build an environment with people enthusiastic to learn more every day because they not only feel they are obligated to but because they are interested. The purpose of education is to introduce new information to students while encouraging them to discover more on their own. The role of educators in this is to make students realize that education goes beyond knowledge from books. It is making students ready for life outside of school....
John Locke, arguably one of the most influential contemporary figures to shape the modern western world, but also, arguably one of the most contradictory. Within his work, Second Treatise of Government, Locke explores numerous political concepts such as the idea that as members of society, we consent to have a government and we consent to our government taking some of our freedoms in exchange for the protection of life, liberty, and property. In addition, Locke also explores other concepts such...
In this essay I will compare the stances of Judith Thomson and Don Marquis on the topic of abortion. Thomson argues that abortion is acceptable in some cases, she believes that everyone has a right to life, but that does not include the right to use someone else’s body without permission. Marquis is similar in the way that he does not swing completely one way on the rightfulness or wrongfulness of abortion. His main point is not that abortion is...
In Machiavelli’s various works, he propagates the usage of violence in them. So much so that it is impossible not to think of violence when you think of him. He utilises the The Prince to convey messages of mass killings and near genocides as a means of maintaining power as a ruler. It is evident that he advocates for its necessity. In his short story Belfagor, he writes about how this demon violently possess women and mob chasings. Machiavelli is...
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