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Print Site this Scientific Taxonomy and Earths Biodiversity

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Ruscha’s rat (Abrawayaomys ruschii) and giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) were selected for the analysis of mammals. First of all, it should be stated that the similar features of all the mammals are shared among all the species, and the two selected are not an exception. The common features, which Ruscha’s rat and giant panda share as mammals are the three middle ear bones, hair, and the ability to produce milk for the feeding of newborn litter with the sweat glands, which are also called mammary glands.

The differences between these species are covered in the sizes of the animals (15 cm in length of Ruscha’s rat, and up to 80 cm high for pandas). These animals differ in their natural environment and position in the food chain.

As for the issues of order, it should be stated that the giant panda belongs to the order Carnivora (coyotes, dogs, and foxes), and has a diet that is 99% bamboo. It may also eat other foods such as honey, eggs, fish, shrub leaves, and fruits when available. Ruscha’s rat belongs to the order Rodentia (squirrels and capybaras), as its ration includes corns, insects, eggs, and roots.

The next two species are the representatives of Insects. These are Pipevine Swallowtail (Battus philenor) and Camberwell Beauty (Nymphalis antiopa).

As for the common features, all the insects have a complete and rather complex digestive tract. As Agassiz (2001, p. 76) states, all the insects are dioecious: “fertilization is internal in most. How mating is accomplished, however, is incredibly variable; study of this variability by evolutionary biologists has greatly advanced our understanding of the evolution of behavior, social evolution, and traits such as number, size of young, and patterns of investment in them.” Both species are completely different in the young stages of life from the mature form of the insect.

The selected species differ with the coloring (iridescent metallic blue sheen of Pipevine Swallowtail and very dark red, with a bright, yellowish border around the wings of Camberwell Beauty). The young specimen differs in appearance, however, they are almost similar in coloring.

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As for the orders, Camberwell Beauty (Nymphalis antiopa) belongs to Lepidoptera, also sharing this order with Pipevine Swallowtail (Eriocraniid Moths, Ghost Moths and Swifts and Mandibulate Moths). The representatives of this order undergo essential metamorphoses during a four-stage life cycle: egg, larva/caterpillar, pupa/chrysalis, and imago/adult. Moreover, the life cycle may also entail inactive periods, or diapauses, aimed at overcoming unsuitable environmental conditions.

The following species, which should be analyzed are from the class of Aves (Birds) Cooper’s hawk (Accipiter cooperii), and chukar (Alectoris chukar). The key features which define birds from other animals are the following:

First of all, feather covering should be mentioned. This gives them perfect aerodynamic characteristics, as well as simplicity and lightness of body constitution. The bones of the birds are hollow inside, nevertheless, durable enough for overcoming extreme g-forces (especially for birds of prey). A horny beak without teeth is another feature, which defines birds. The beak is aimed at consuming corns, insects, or tearing the fleshes of the victims (for birds of prey)

The differences between these two species are covered in the fact that Cooper’s hawk is a bird of prey, and has the corresponding body constitution. Chukar is the bird of flock (5 to 40 species in a flock), while hawks and similar birds prefer living single, covering huge territories for hunting.

Chukar belongs to the order Galliformes (fowls, gallinaceous birds, or galliforms) and Cooper’s hawk is the representative of Falconiformes (Falcons, Eagles). Galliformes are birds that are chicken-like in appearance, with small to large bodies and blunt wings. Falconiformes are the birds of prey, created for killing and enduring extreme speeds, g-forces, and hights.

The final part of the analysis is dedicated to Echinoderms. Sea stars and starfishes (Asteroidea), sea cucumbers (Holothuroidea) are selected for the comparison. Haldane and Huxley (2005, p. 391) in their zoological review give the following classification of echinoderms: “An internal skeleton is present throughout members of the phylum. Ossicles, which make up the skeleton, are below an outer dermal layer. The skeletal and muscular arrangement varies among groups. Pedicellariae produced by the skeleton, are pincer-like structures. Found mainly in echinoids and asteroids, their function is debatable. They may be used to capture prey, clean, or hold items to disguise from predators.” Originally, these are the main features, which unite Sea stars and Sea Cucumbers. As for the matters of differences, it should be stated that these two species are different in form and have a place in the food chain.

The mouth of the sea stars is located underneath the star itself, while the cucumber has its mouth in front of the body. The spiny upper surface of the star differs essentially from the covering of Sea Cucumber. Moreover, the Holothuroidea is also featured with the sticky civilian tubules (enlargements of the respiratory tree that float freely in the coelom) to entangle potential predators. (Scientific American, 2003). Sea Cucumbers represent the order Aspidochirotida (Parastichopus californicus and Parastichopus parvimensis), and Sea stars are the representatives of Forcipulatida (Ampheraster, Anteliaster, and Aphanasterias).

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