Scrap can be explained as a waste that has no value economically or such waste that have value only of their basic material which can be obtained through the process of recycling. It is generated once the final product has been obtained at the end of the manufacturing process is over. There are few products that you will see which could be a damaged one or some waste which cannot be used again as their expiry date has been crossed and requires to be thrown or scrapped in such situation.
During 20th century, the economy of the world grew in a steady manner which were devoted to the services. In the United States, for example, the service sector accounted for more than half the gross domestic product (GDP) in 1929, two-thirds in 1978, and more than three-quarters in 1993. During the early 21st century, service industries accounted for more than three-fifths of the worldwide GDP and employed more than one-third of the labor force globally.
In India, Recycling can be considered as one of the major areas which can be claimed as beneficial within the waste management services. Due to the increased used of electrical equipment and also as the population has been increasing and there is growth with respect to consumption, there has been increase in volumes of scrap in different streams. The potential of waste recycling has been hindered due to improper segregation of waste. There is an expectation that the Recycling market will see high growth opportunity as per the revision in regulations made by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, source segregation, material recovery, waste treatment, and recycling markets. The industry of scrap is huge and spreads in about $500 billion business that employees around 1.5 million of population. Every day there is collection of 120,000 tons of waste which is produced by Urban India. US is considered to be the biggest exporter of scrap in the world and majorly exports it to Mexico.
Most of the rag pickers in India often chose such business as they have no alternatives available with them. A total of garbage and solid waste that is produced in India is greater than 62 million tons on annual rate which is about 60% less than what is actually collected and 15% are those which can be recycled. The wastes have been sub-categorized into- Organic, dry and biomedical wastes. Most of the goods are thrown in bins and only some solid waste material reaches to such dealers. On an average, almost 20% of waste is recycled by such dealers and there are still no schemes for these people. And when the municipal corporation privatizes the dealership (as happened in Delhi) a lot of people end up losing their jobs as well.
The Global Health Service has identified 22 human diseases that are associated to improper solid waste management (MIT Urban Development Sector Unit 1999). These are linked to diseases like asthma, heart attack, and emphysema to burning garbage. Dump yards are often reported to catch fire leading to deaths of people due to emission of tons of cancer-causing air due to burning of leather, plastic etc. Nowadays, residential societies are generating income from the waste management in major cities of India earning approximately Rs 25000 per month.
A scrap dealer, often known as kabadiwala or raddiwala earns an average of Rs 30000 per month in India. Government announced steel scrap recycling policy, aimed to reduce imports, scrap centers planned. (Times of India, November 2019) In India, 26.9 million tons of scrap were generated in 2018-19 and the industry is expected to grow at a CAGR of 12.48% in the next five years.
In order to gain profit, an organized approach is needed for the unorganized sector of scrap. Promoting the recycling industry will benefit the environment and will help in generating employment opportunities and well as provide job for the people. Such practice will also help in reducing the overall dependence of importing the scrap from other countries. Thus it will be beneficial for rag pickers if proper promotion is done.
Having huge consumer base the demand for naturally produced and material goods has increased due to rapid economic growth in India. There is about 62 million tons of waste and by 2030 it will bw around 165mt and by the year 2045 it will be 450mt. The current system which has been followed is not practically functional as there is no proper infrastructure also here is lack of proper incentives and poor funds available to this industry.
The report which was presented by CBCP in the year 2014-15, overall percentage of waste which are solid in nature and were collected was about 91 from which 27 % is used while 73% is dumped. It is observed that India will be requiring 88 sq. km area of land to dispose waste by the year 2030. Consumption of material is expected to be tripled by 2025, a viable possibility which is offered by recycle process which can be utilized in order to meet the demand of material in the country. Thus it is necessary for people to accept the changes and help in bringing transition for improving the condition of the people working in the industry while bringing sustainable changes in the environment which will be beneficial in every aspect.