Aim of the study
This study aims to critically analyse Dumazile’s behaviour in Kunjalo-ke (2008) by M. E. Wanda, using the psychoanalytic theory. It looks into the character’s behaviour using the psychoanalytic theory by Sigmund Freud. It also looks at the consequences of the characters behaviour.
Definition of behaviour
Behavior is something that a person does that can be observed, measured and repeated. A clear definition of behavior, specifically describes someone’s actions (for example Sam talks during class instruction) (Bicard & the IRIS Center, 2012).
Behavior is every action by a person that can be seen or heard. It must be defined in a way that is both observable and measurable, so that everyone working with the child has a good understanding of what his behavior looks and sounds like (Alberto & Troutman, 2003).
Deducing from the above definitions, behavior may be viewed as the manner of acting or controlling oneself, especially towards others.
This section explains the method and procedure chosen for conducting this research. This study will make use of the qualitative method to collect data. Qualitative research is a type of social science research that collects and works with non-numerical data. It seeks to interpret meaning from these data that help understand social life through the study of targeted populations or places (Crossman, 2020). The primary source that is used in this study is M. E. Wanda’s Kunjalo-ke (2008), which is analysed in the study. Secondary sources are the academic texts namely journals, articles, published books and the internet.
A theoretical framework consists of concepts and, together with their definitions and reference to relevant scholarly literature, existing theory that is used for your particular study. The theoretical framework must demonstrate an understanding of theories and concepts that are relevant to the topic of your research paper and that relate to the broader areas of knowledge being considered (Usc.edu, 2013). It also provides the researcher with a background to understand the research problem, what similar researches have been conducted and what have they found regarding that particular topic they are researching. This also helps them to choose the appropriate theory that will be fit for the study they will conduct. This study presents an analysis of the psychoanalytic theory by Sigmund Freud. The psychoanalysis theory has much research around it from decades ago to currently. In this study the focus around this theory will be discussing the concepts of psychoanalysis, historical background of the theory.
Importance aspects of the theory will also be discussed under them we find defense mechanism that consist of the three parts of the mind the id, ego and super ego that drives the person in to doing right and wrong. The conscious and unconscious mind is also explained in detail. Assumptions of the theory are also discussed in terms of how other writers think of the psychoanalytic theory. Lastly there’s also linking of the theory to literature.
Over the past decades much has been written about the psychoanalytic theory I terms of understanding the human brain, sexuality, relationships, behaviour and feminism. In terms of the novel Kunjalo-ke (2008) not much has been written in terms of research about it, there are only two researchers who have pursued the means of analysing this novel by understanding its theme.one of the writer’s in (Enovelini et al., n.d.) uses the post-modern theory to analyse the characters behaviour which led them to be infected with HIV & AIDS. In her research she expresses the theme of AIDS in M.E Wanda’s novel Kunjalo-ke (2008) by showing the portrayal of both male and female characters infected with HIV. In her study she also discusses the analysis of the domain and its impact on infected characters of AIDS in this novel. Another study that has been conducted regarding this novel is a depiction of female characters by male and female authors: A comparison. (Unisa.ac.za, 2011) this study looks at how female characters are portrayed by female and male characters, the aim of the study is to see if current writers are improving in terms of exposing the issues affecting women in this age of development and freedom.
Under psychoanalysis a lot of research has been done. In (Lees, 2005) the study outlines three principal strands in psychoanalytic research namely the practice, process and outcome, and narrative strands. His approach combines elements of the practice and narrative strands. The first feature of the method, as in clinical practice (particularly psychodynamic clinical practice), is that any phenomenon is potentially ‘grist for the mill’ (that is to say, a matter for further research), including reviewers’ comments. A second feature of the method is that relationship is important. Just as the ongoing relationship between the therapist and client is central to clinical work, so the ongoing relationship between the researcher (via the medium of his/her text) and the readers forms an integral part of psychotherapeutic research. Particular attention is paid to reader response and resonance. These responses enable the writer/researcher to reflect on his/her actions and engage in ‘peripheral’ vision on it. Just as a client is prompted by a well-timed interpretation to reflect on his/her behavior so a psychotherapeutic researcher is prompted by a well-timed comment to reflect on his/her text and ultimately the motivations underpinning it. Therapeutic communication is intended to deepen the patient’s own awareness of these same aspects, leading to beneficial changes in their lives (Gullestad, et al. 2013).
Freud believed that being steeped in the psychoanalytic method was the only means of appreciating the impact that the unconscious had on the functioning of the individual, and was quite skeptical about the possibility that carefully devised empirical studies could test psychoanalytic hypotheses more convincingly than direct clinical experience (Schachter & Kächele, 2012).
Many researchers have also found that there are common techniques used by differently named psychotherapies (e.g. Ablon & Jones, 1998; Sloane et al., 1975; Waldron & Helm, 2004). However, the apparent relative equivalency of all therapies in short-term effect on symptoms does not address the impact on subsequent life. This is particularly true for patients with severe or complex disorders, which are usually related to personality organizations that predispose to a variety of psychological malfunctions, and which are correspondingly unlikely to respond very fully to brief therapy, even if the immediate symptom (depression, anxiety, etc.) is alleviated for the moment (Huber, 2017; Westen, Novotny, & Thompson-Brenner, 2004).
Within what might be called the psychoanalytic umbrella, there also is a profusion of techniques, probably not differing from each other as much as each theoretician believes. A group of colleagues wrote a paper whose title captures the problem: “Beyond Brand Names of Psychotherapies” (Ablon, Levy & Katzenstein, 2006)
Studies done the group (Waldron, Scharf, Hurst et al. 2004; Waldron, Scharf, Crouse, et al., 2004) found that it is the quality of the interventions, as judged by other seasoned clinicians listening to recordings of the therapeutic work, that contributes to advancing the patient’s work in treatment and in turn, benefit, irrespective of the particular type of intervention. These findings were made possible by developing scales to assess the various activities of patient, analyst and the analytic pair, described further below. But first, we present a brief and inevitably incomplete review of findings by other authors that have advanced knowledge in the field, first in regard to efficacy, and then of processes of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy.
Summary of the novel
The novel Kunjalo-ke by M. E. Wanda is the story of Dumazile who is the main character. She is a young beautiful girl from Mzimkhulu, who is raised by a well-mannered family. Her family sacrifices a lot they have to send her to school at Mbumbulu to study at Zenzele High School. She loses her dignity by dating a teacher who impregnates her and runs away after his crime gets known by the other school teachers and the principal.
Dumazile becomes a single parent and starts suffering in terms of providing for her fatherless child. She is offered a job of taking care of Manzimande and Sithole’s child and she gets promoted to work at Sithole’s store as a cashier. Instead of being grateful, she betrays Manzimande by taking her husband away from her and her child. Sithole takes good her of her, he buys her a house, a car and pays for her studies. She becomes a qualified nurse. After all these things, she still becomes greedy and selfish and teams up with a security guard that she is dating and is working in Sithole’s store. They steal items and burn the store down, thinking that she will receive money from the insurance. Unfortunately, Sithole has missed paying the insurance premium for the month and the insurance declines his claim. This is the downfall of the richest man and he becomes poor after this incident. Instead of becoming supportive, Dumazile gets annoyed by him and cheats on him with her colleague, who is an ambulance driver at the same hospital she is working in.
Dumazile gets married to the ambulance driver and, still, is not faithful. She meets Mr. Moloi, the teacher who impregnated her and ran away. Their relationship continues. When Sithole starts working, Dumazile welcomes him back into her life. This leads to a conflict on one day when Sithole finds Mr. Moloi in his house that he bought for Dumazile and the two men end up fighting. This is shame and disgrace as they fight over a married woman while the husband is at work. This ends up in newspapers and when Dumazile’s husband comes home to attend to this issue, she is nowhere to be found as she has run away. She ends up in hospital as she is very sick. On listening to the radio, she finds out that all the men she has been in relationships with are deceased.
The above scenario leads to Dumazile’s three children being fatherless as all their different fathers have passed away. She also passes away as she is infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This is very sad for her family because they are very disappointed at how their daughter has turned out to be. The most painful thing is that her children end up being orphans.
This chapter has set out guidelines to be followed in this study. It has introduced the reader the content to be discussed. This has been done by highlighting the aim of the study, scope, definition of concepts, research methodology, literature review and the summary of the novel.