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Psychological Theories Essays

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Major Psychological Theory: Psychoanalysis By Sigmund Freud And Adlerian Psychology Alfred Adler

Introduction Amongst the many psychological theories, the oldest and rigorously studied are Psychoanalysis and Adlerian/ Individual Psychology by Sigmund Freud and Alfred Adler. Both these theories made a mark on the history of psychology. Adlerian therapy refers to a growth model that emphasizes on assuming responsibilities, creating a person’s destiny and finding ways, means, and goals of creating a meaningful life. Psychoanalytic therapy is a theory that put many emphasis on personality development, and a philosophy of nature of human...
6 Pages 2929 Words

Theory of Mind in Relation to Non-Human Animals

Although many species have behaved as if they have a ‘theory of mind’ in various behavioral tasks, it is still an extensive debate as to whether they can attribute mental states to others. This essay’s main aim is to explain the concept of theory of mind and describe the methods used to assess mind-reading abilities of non-human animals. Theory of mind is referred to as the human ability to mindread. This term has been used in developmental psychology to explain...
2 Pages 948 Words

Human's Uniqueness in the Understanding of the Theory of Mind

Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states which includes goals, beliefs, intentions and desires to oneself and to others. This essay is looking at theory of mind of adults and social cognition of infant and children. The presumption of humans’ uniqueness in understanding theory of mind is largely true and will be discussed in this essay through the false-belief test, a number of theories and mind blindness, which is a theory of mind deficit caused by brain...
5 Pages 2061 Words

How Well Do Theory of Mind and Executive Function Theory Explain Key Deficits in Autism?

Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, as well as repetitive and restricted patterns of behavior and interests (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). It has been argued that cognitive deficits may underlie the disorder. Thus, two cognitive theories have been proposed to explain key deficits in autism: theory of mind hypothesis and executive function theory. Each theory offers a different explanation for the deficits seen in autism, with both theories effectively explaining different aspects...
8 Pages 3691 Words

Comparison of the Behaviorist and Humanistic Approaches

This assignment is going to compare and contrast behaviorism and the humanistic theory and find the differences in two different theories out of the four main theories. Also, there is an understanding on what the theories are and how they are used in present day. Behaviorism is a theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment. Behaviorists believe that our responses to environmental stimuli shape our actions....
2 Pages 846 Words

Behaviorism and the Humanistic Approach in Understanding Human Behavior

Using two psychological theories of behaviorism and humanistic, in this essay I will analyze how well they explain human behavior. It is difficult to pinpoint exactly when the study of psychology started, however, in ancient Greek times where philosophers would sit and debate topics of human thoughts and behaviors, this might be evidence of the earlier studies. Although the evaluation of behaviorism and humanistic theories will be covered, it is important to remember that there are many more approaches. A...
5 Pages 2088 Words

Addiction in the Context of Behavioral and Humanistic Approaches

According to the World Health Organization ‘health’ is described as “a state of complete mental, physical and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease”. The word ‘illness’ is defined by the Cambridge English dictionary as being “a disease or period of sickness that affects the body or mind”. These definitions will be used to explain health and illness through a psychological perspective and distinguish how addiction has impacts on a person’s day-to-day life. Addiction is a social and...
2 Pages 898 Words

Role of Attribution Theory in Explaining Employee Behaviour

Achieving high organizational performance is an important goal for a manager, as stated by Andersson and Bateman (1997), the reputation of an organization is intimately linked with its leaders. Employees’ perceptions of fellow employees and supervisors’ behaviors as well as their environment may contribute to job neglect. Attribution theory may help in establishing the reason behind employee behavior as well as whether external or internal factors are causing such behavior (Oghojafor, 2011). Initially, Heider (1958) identified three attribution errors, fundamental...
4 Pages 1594 Words

Definition Essay on Attribution Theory

Attribution theory is all about a communal brain science theory that investigates how individuals make sense of occasions and practices and how they credit causes to the occasions and practices. Schroth and Shah (2000), contemplating utilizing attribution theory look at the utilization of data in the social condition to clarify occasions and practices. Reffett (2007) states that when evaluators accept similar people would have acted distinctively in a given condition, they (evaluators) tend to characteristic obligation regarding a result to...
1 Page 422 Words

Pros and Cons of Positive Psychology

Positive Psychology is an approach that became notable around 1990 and was devised by Martin Seligman (Scorsolini-comin’ et al. 2013). It is deemed a scientific approach that is used to study human experiences such as happiness, well-being, and the development of significant relationships (Carr, 2011). Pentti et al. (2019) discussed how they believe there are five core components of Positive Psychology, and suggested they are the fundamental building blocks of health and happiness; these are engagement, relationships, positive emotions, meaning,...
4 Pages 1963 Words

How Positive Psychology Can Fit into My Own Life

Abstract In Authentic Happiness Seligman suggests a formula for happiness, The Pleasant Life, The Good Life, and The Meaningful Life, encouraging people to seek a meaningful life in a continual quest for happiness. (Seligman 161). Seligman’s theory reconciles two conflicting views of human happiness, the individualistic approach, which emphasizes that we should take care of ourselves and nurture our own strengths, and the altruistic approach, which tends to downplay individuality and emphasizes sacrifice for the greater purpose. ( This paper...
5 Pages 2423 Words

Analysis of the Movie 'Babies' through John Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development and Bowlby’s Evolutionary Theory of Attachment

The movie ‘Babies’ by Thomas Balmès takes us on a trip around the world to observe four newborn babies for the first two years of their lives. The movie looks at the relationship infants have with their parents and compares their development through a series of vignettes when each child accomplishes certain milestones. Throughout this paper I will discuss two theories that I felt were evident in the movie ‘Babies’. John Piaget’s theory of cognitive development and Bowlby’s evolutionary theory...
6 Pages 2585 Words

Essay about Positive Thinking

Today I’m going to be sharing with you all about the effects of Positive Thinking. Positive thinking on the surface sounds useful and I’m sure most of us would prefer to be positive rather than negative. There was this one quote saying, “If you learn to harness the power of positive thoughts, you’ll attract more positive circumstances”. However, you will attract more negativity and pain if you think negatively. I’m sure you all wouldn’t want that, wouldn’t you? At first...
1 Page 616 Words

Understanding Role and Appeal of Horror in Popular Culture Using Psychoanalysis

Humanity has always sought to capture certain moments and feelings and that way give it immortality. Hence film, bearing the features of an art form operating within the narration of time and space seemed to be a perfect medium. The world of film seems to support the illusion of immortal and immutable reality in the likeness of artificial sleep and rule the subconscious instincts of the viewer. Sleep, consciousness and subconsciousness are the first intuitively found psychoanalytical threads in cinema,...
6 Pages 2949 Words

Psychoanalytic Analysis of Grendel

Thesis in ‘Grendel’ much of the internal conflict came from components of his individual psyche and influenced the way the world was portrayed around him. When it comes to the components of the psychoanalytic perspective there are three main parts to focus on: the id, the superego and the ego. First, the id is incredibly prevalent in ‘Grendel’ for many reasons, but one being that it can be interpreted as the monster inside of you or the voice telling you...
1 Page 668 Words

A Beautiful Mind' as a Film Depicting Elements of Abnormal Cognition and Behavior: Psychological Assignment

Abnormal psychology is a branch of psychology that studies people who are ‘abnormal’ or ‘atypical’ compared to what is acceptable and follows the social norms in a given society. Their behavior may be incomprehensible to others or make others feel threatened and or uncomfortable. With this definition, a person is seen as abnormal when he/she is unable to cope with the demands of everyday life. Such people are unable to perform the behaviors that are necessary for day-to-day living, such...
3 Pages 1152 Words

Review of the Cognitive Neuroscience of Literacy and Dyslexia

Introduction Developmental dyslexia is a common learning disability that influences the reading and writing proficiency of those affected. Despite nearly 10% of the population having a form of dyslexia there is no universally accepted neurological starting point. I will be reviewing materials on some of the leading theories of causes of dyslexia and how they attempt to explain the brain processes involved and if there are potential limitations. Personally, I work with dyslexic children and adults in a school setting...
5 Pages 2379 Words

Application of Psychoanalysis on Dreams in Dostoevsky's ‘Crime and Punishment’

According to Sigmund Freud, all dreams contain a subliminal message. These messages are able to be interpreted by a psychologist inorder to find the sources of one’s pain or discomfort in life. The process of studying dreams is referred to as psychoanalysis. Psychoanalysis has its application in the physical world and in literature. Dostoevsky has revealed the insights of Raskolnikov’s and Svidrigailov’s dreams, it has provided a way to venture deeper into character analysis by applying psychoanalysis by. Crime and...
2 Pages 1009 Words

Use of Psychoanalytic Concepts in the Treatment of PTSD: Article Review

Traumatic experiences are a terrible thing for anyone experience. But they do happen to people. When these events transpire, it is possible that the victim of the incident will start showing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The DSM-5 lets us know that some of the people who are most likely to be affected by PTSD are the “survivors of rape, military combat and captivity, and ethnically or politically motivated internment and genocide” (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). We hope that...
2 Pages 736 Words

Keeping Positivity Alive During Difficult Times

Focus on positive ideas to deal with a situation than wallowing in sadness or anxiety. Kindness when shared, multiplies, and changes one’s perspective A gratitude journal or notes of things that one is thankful for, reminds one of good times. Difficult times like economic crisis, political unrest, and pandemic bring out anxiety and sadness in a majority of Americans. But through time, it has been proven that having a positive perspective or cultivating satisfaction can help one to sail through...
1 Page 497 Words

Mindfulness and Exercise for PTSD in Veterans

PTSD affects about 11-20% of veterans that have served in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). Symptoms can be grouped into four distinct clusters: recurrent and intrusive reminders of the event, avoidance of things that remind one of the event, negative changes in thoughts and moods, and emotional reactivity. These symptoms can affect one’s quality of life. PTSD has been found to contribute to low mental and physical quality of life (Gradus, 2017). It is necessary to...
2 Pages 922 Words

The Use of Positive Psychological Exercises on Well-Being

This paper will examine the use of positive psychological exercises on well-being through viewing variations of heart rate when completing the exercises. Research from Cohen and Pressman (2006) state that disorders, such as, depression and anxiety have been examined as a larger risk for mortality rates. A great extent of research has proved that greater wellbeing has a strong correlation to a better physical health, findings by Cohen and Pressman (2005) whom examined the improvement of cardiovascular health and lowering...
2 Pages 873 Words

Reasons Why SMI are so Persuasive

Social Media Influencer (SMI) marketing within the corporate world is a relatively recent phenomenon. This is due to the fact that the corporate landscape has seen a seismic shift from disseminating information to their consumers predominantly through television, radio and print to the social media age characterized by various mediums such as Instagram, Facebook and Twitter dominated by influencers along with personalized ads. Social media influencers have played a key role in the social media age by generating conversation, driving...
3 Pages 1329 Words

Emotional Impacts on Well Being

A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in the last few decades, dealing with how positive and negative emotions mold individuals in an unexpected manner, with the prospective to create a theory shift in assessment of decision theories. The review reveals that emotions constitute dominant, persistent, and conventional drivers of decision making thus affecting an indivdual. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. The present paper organizes and analyzes...
4 Pages 1881 Words

Essay on Perspective

This assignment will be focusing on the Psychodynamic and Person-Centred perspectives. The aim will be to compare, contrast and provide criticisms for both perspectives. Also, the effectiveness of the Psychodynamic and Person-Centred Approaches will be mentioned, all with the use of past literature. Following that will be a conclusion that will summarise the essay. Person-centered therapy took a while to develop its name with this approach seen as one of the humanistic therapies which focus on the person or client....
5 Pages 2431 Words

Weaknesses of Constructivism International Relations

Constructivism in international relations is one of the new concepts in the field and falls at the heels of the theories of realism, liberalism, and Marxism (economic structuralism) that exist in international relations. Constructivism is challenging realistic and liberal anarchy assumptions and the international system. Constructivism, as we shall see, focuses on ideas of norms, structural development, the relationship between actors and such structures, and how identity influences actions and behavior between and between actors (Reus-Smit, 2005: 188). Constructivists often...
2 Pages 938 Words

Liberalism vs Constructivism

International Relations Political events have always been quite complex and just one theoretical approach cannot explain why they occur their impacts or their consequences. The only way to have a better understanding is by putting together all the theories and seeing the wider picture. That is the reason why Liberalism and Constructivism are the theories that better explain contemporary global politics, as they are the ones that take into account more reasons and approaches to why political affairs are the...
4 Pages 1973 Words

Realism, Liberalism and Constructivism

If there is no one in a position of power in the world how can that lead to total peace? By its definition, international anarchy refers to the world not having anyone in any position of power or not having any kind of authority or world government. This means that if the world would be in a state of anarchy, then no country and its citizens would have to follow any strict rules or laws and it would not have...
2 Pages 817 Words

Attachment Theory Versus Attribution Theory, Politeness Theory Versus Face Theory: Comparative Analysis

The detailed study of language, usually interpersonal communication, came in the history of humanity and we consciously or unconsciously interpret what the body of the other says to give meaning to words. However, interpersonal communication is defined by the exchange of messages and codes between two individuals. The implication of the notion of distance constitutes an important point of communication because it identifies what kind of communication the interlocutors are granted. The concept of proximity refers to this interpersonal distance...
6 Pages 2746 Words

Analysis of Entrepreneurial Values and Theory of Multiple Intelligences in Technopreneurship

Abstract This study aims to build the Guidance of technopreneurship, especially Information Technology (IT) technopreneurship using an expert system approach based on entrepreneurial values and multiple intelligences. The research consists of several steps: system analysis and design, system development, and test and implementation system. The result is the guidance of technopreneurship using an expert system. The expert system consists of expertise domain, knowledge representation, rules, and input and output data. Data input consists of indicators of entrepreneurial values and multiple...
6 Pages 2870 Words
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