Psychology Report: Experiment on Stroop Effect While Naming the List of Colors
This study is focused on the Stroop effect , this was formed by John Ridley Stroop, where they asked participants a list of colours in the same colour ink and a list of colours in different colour ink. The hypothesis for the study is ‘That it takes more effort to recall colours than of words’. The main study that link to this study is by James McKeen Cattell in 1886, who after doing the experiment, suggested that word reading is automatic and is already in the brain, due to practice in life. For the method, I asked a number of participants if they would like to volunteer in my experiment. For the design method used in the experiment, the researcher method was that the researcher used was a field experiment
Literature review- The Stroop effect is all about information processing and how people recall this information. This was created by John Ridley Stroop who in 1929 gave participants words on a sheet of paper. Stoop did know that the automatic processing, would happen during the experiment, because of the research from the past. One of the first researchers to research the theory behind this is James McKeen Cattell in 1886, who suggested that word reading is automatic and is already in the brain, due to practice in life. The researcher used two sources to get information one was a blog and one was a written report, the researcher believes that the written report is more reliable because it includes lots of references to back up information, whereas the blog doesn’t however it is written by someone with a PHD, not in psychology though. One way for the implications for policy and practice of the research is if someone is color-blind because they can’t recall the specific different colors, therefore it would be unreliable and will affect the outcome of the results.
Aims and hypothesis ‘That it takes more effort to recall colours than of words.
IV and DV (Independent and Dependant variable): The IV of the Stroop effect is how the experiment will be affected if the colour and the text shown was different or similar. The DV of the Stroop effect is the time taken between the stimulus and the response.
The researcher used many materials when carrying out the research, The researcher used a stopwatch, to time the percipients. A Computer and the internet, to video call (due to Covid-19) and to record my results on a table. The researcher also sent a consent form (see appendix 1), instructions (See appendix 2), Resources (see appendix 3) questionnaire (see appendix 4) and debrief to participants (See appendix 5)
For the experiment the scoring system the researcher used was a table and the time in seconds, I used this to record my results.
When doing the experiment, the researcher firstly gathered all six of the participants. These participants were all tested online (through Microsoft teams) and individually. When conducting the experiment with them, the researcher gave them a consent form to fill out beforehand, with their written names and signatures on there, to show that they have consented to and for the participants to know and understand their rights. The researcher than went through the standardized instructions (see appendix 2) with the participants these were clear and easy to understand. The researcher then making sure that the participants fully understand what there are asked to do , than the researcher, started the experiment with them by doing conditions one and condition 2 , the participants were asked to read out a list of colors that was the same as the text and list of text with different colors e.g. blue was written in red, this showed recall, while doing this I timed the participants so that the researcher had some data as evidence. When doing the experiment the researcher gave them a time limit of 10 mins. After the participants conducted the researcher’s pilot study, they then went on to answer a 5 question questionnaire (see appendix 4) , which was done with close questions, so that we got simple answers. Lastly, at the end of the experiment the researcher then debriefed (see appendix 5) the participants, so that the participants fully understand what the experiment was about and what they did by doing this, here the researchers told them everything including the aim and hypothesis of the pilot study. The researcher and participants then discussed this and the participants were able to ask any questions. The Participants then agreed that if they wanted to be part of the experiment, and If participants didn’t their data will then be withdrawn from the experiment.
For my results, the researcher obtained descriptive statistics and raw data see table below, the researcher then put it in a graphical display (see below).
Table 2 shows descriptive statistics ( see table below). I did interval data which is the mean scores of the researcher results, for the working outs (see appendix 6).
In table 2, condition 2 had the highest average with a score of 20, this means that participants took longer to read out the list of colors that were written in different colors than they did for the words written in the same color. Condition 1, had a lower mean score by 13 seconds, than condition 2. People, therefore, did much better in condition 1 than in condition 2.
The findings, that the researcher obtained explain that when the brain tries to process what color it is, it takes much longer and more effort due to the two types of information conflicting in the brain. It takes the brain much longer to realize which was is right. This explains the researcher’s hypothesis, ‘ That it takes more effort to recall colors than of words’. When the researcher was carrying out the experiment, they found out that there was a certain piece of data, that was unexpected. This was the anomalous data, were compared to other participants, one took a very long time on condition one (39 seconds), just to read out the colors written in the same ink. There was a pattern as most of them had similar results. All of them took longer in condition 2 than in condition 1.
For sampling, the researcher chooses a target population from an age range from 16-43, all from the same area. The issue with this is that for the age, it consisted of 4 out of 6 is the same age of 16 and the other two with different ages in the range. This is a little brief and isn’t much of a variety, this could have impacted the experiment as younger people have quicker reaction times than those who are older. With the ages and areas, if they are all similar it makes it harder to generalize to different areas and ages. They were also all volunteers, as the researcher asked them if they wanted to take part, this may have changed the results to other sampling methods, which might make it much more valid. The study did run somewhat smoothly, the researcher got results that were accurate and was in line to the original study. The participants seemed to enjoy taking part from what I gathered from the questionnaire (appendix 4), there was times however when participants were a little distracted from the things going on around them, as this wasn’t very standardized, due to the fact that the experiment was done over video because of COVID-19. In the researcher questionnaire, some participants said to be a little more professional , when conducting the experiment. The researcher findings does support the hypothesis, as it does show all that it takes longer to recall colours written in the same colour ink , this is shown with the raw data and the mean (average) score I obtained, for example, the mean score for condition 1 was 7 while condition 2 was 20. This is a clear difference and clearly shows ‘That it takes more effort to recall colours than of words’ . The instructions given to participants was easy to follow, as it was written in simple bullet points, and any questions were answered, this was shown when the participants did the questionnaire, as out of six participants all said that yes the instructions was easy to understand. When looking back at the literature review, the results obtained was very similar, as it did show that condition 2 that it takes longer, when the colour ink and the word don’t correspond together. James McKeen Cattell who also repeated the experiment obtained similar results and findings. The researcher is pretty confident in the results obtained as they make sense and they line up, with the findings from past experimenters who repeated this study.
The research done by the researcher can impact practice in the real world because it can be used by psychiatrists and researchers to figure out someone’s attention spam, and how long it takes someone to process and recall information. The research could be used to change education, advertisement and age, as for education it can be used to test students’ intelligence and their attention span. For age it can be used to see how someone who is older is mental, it is known that doing the strop test is much harder for the older generation, than it is for the young. It could also be used in advertising because it might be much easier for people to understand if the color and text is written in the same color. To further this investigation, the researcher could maybe do some more research and experiment In how the brain processes things. My recommendations for future research is to get more data and use more participants so that it is more accurate and valid.’
Doing this research will help the researcher in the future because it will help me to be able to conduct an experiment again if I go into psychology. It has built my confidence and given me some insight into university. It will help me be aware of confidentially and data protection, which can be used in everyday life. While conducting the experiment, the researcher has learnt a range have skills, that has helped with my progress and development. Some of the personal skills I have learned is that I have good organization skills and time management, this is good because it will help me do reports and conduct experiments again. Another personal skill is that I am able to work indivually better, so I am able to get things done efficiently and not have to rely on other people. Some of the professional skills I have learned is that I have now improved on my academic research skills, such as some IT skills and paying attention to detail, this will be useful in jobs I may undertake and everyday uses, such as reading and analyzing texts. Another professional skill I have learned is that I have learned the importance of health and safety, especially with making sure my participants weren’t in distress and the added pressure of making sure my participants were safe during the experiment with COVID-19. When the researcher did this experiment they found it hard to keep a clear head and act professionally to make sure that nothing affected the research and the experiment. All these skills I have learned is shown by the questionnaire where 100 percent of people said they enjoyed the experiment and that the instructions were easy to understand. To improve this the researcher could have acted more efficiently and professionally and focused directly on the tasks at hand. Overall I believe that I had done my first experiment very well, as my experiment went well and participants were happy and my research skills have improved dramatically due to doing this experiment.
The Stroop Colour and Word Test effect on its basis is one of the most well-known and long-lasting phenomena in all cognitive science and psychology. Having been first reported by John Ridley Stroop in 1935, the phenomena explains the degree of difficulty people have with naming colour of the ink rather than the word itself (Stroop, 1935). More specifically, it assesses the ability to inhibit cognitive interference, which occurs when the processing of a stimulus feature affects the simultaneous processing...
Apparatus Standardized instructions were read to participants prior to the experiment, ensuring the instructions were understood. In addition to word lists (see Appendix A), which were required to carry out the experiment and provide participants with stimuli. The sets of cards (reading and writing conditions) each had 80 words (8 rows of 10), letter strings or X’s printed on one side (font style and size Arial black 14). Cards used in the control conditions (testing reading and naming accuracy) either...
Rationale My pilot study is going to be based on the Stroop effect. This test is to test is to see how well it works on kids and to see their reaction time. The Stroop effect was discovered by John Ridley Stroop in 1935. John Stroop found out that when a name of a colour is written in a different ink colour people take time to guess what colour is it. In other words, the Stroop effect is the delay...
Abstract In a class experiment a mindfulness exercise was used to investigate the effects it would have on attention. Before the mindfulness exercise was carried out an emotional stroop test was taken by all participants and again after the mindfulness test to investigate the effects. Participants were given a mindfulness test or a relaxation test to also investigate if either exercise will make a difference. The results obtained from the experiment indicated that the mindfulness test did have an effect...
Considering the stroop effect, automaticity, and the different types of attention- their relationships can help researchers better understand the cognitive processes activated in order to correctly identify the desired stimulus. In recent years, researchers have dedicated time studying attention and the different types, focused and divided. Attention is defined by the Merriam Webster Online Dictionary as being the act or power of carefully thinking about, listening to, or watching someone or something (Attention). Focused attention is one’s ability to be...
Abstract In most people, proficiency in language takes precedence over cognition of individual words and letters contained therein. Therefore, when an individual is presented with a random name, there can read it instantaneously without thinking. The brain can respond automatically to the name and the response time is considerably short. If the same person is presented with the word of one color but written in a different color, the reaction is the same. The brain recognizes the word first, and...
The studies evaluated in this paper all correspond to the Stroop effect, either by directly studying the effect or by determining the mechanism through which it occurs. The Stroop Effect is experienced when a written word differs from the color it is written in, and can be understood as a delay in reaching a correct response when presented with mismatching word and color combinations. J. Ridely Stroop was the man who first introduced the Stroop effect, coined after his own...
Behavioral economics, a subfield of economics, offers a view of human behavior that is more subtle, complex, and potentially more realistic than any found in conventional economic theory. By including insights from psychology in the study of economic issues, behavioral economics sheds light on the choices that people make in their lives. Traditional economists often ignore the influence of emotions on people’s decision-making behavior and assume that economic agents are rational wealth maximizers. Behavioral economists observe what people actually do....
Motivation is definitely important for everyone to achieve success in whatever field. But the question here is whether it is the key point or not. In education, interest and curiosity are the potential competitors for making a contribution in particular learning foreign languages. In fact, each of these aspects is crucial in studying. Firstly, it is worth looking at motivation separately. It works perfectly when students have clear targets and a strong will to achieve them. For example, we can...
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