Infectious Disease Control Act
In Japan, there are the acts against source of infection mode of transmission and host susceptibility. There has five laws against infectious disease are Infectious diseases control law, TB prevention law, rabies prevention law, preventive vaccination law and quarantine law. Infectious disease control law focus on particular infectious diseases (e.g., Tuberculosis) and particular health care services (e.g., Vaccination).
In 1987, there was Contagious Disease Prevention Act (CDPA). In 1948, Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention law and in 1989, AIDS prevention Law were added to it and changed the name from CDPA to IDPL (Infectious Disease Control Law) in 1999. The viewpoints of IDPL were to respect human rights of patients or infected person, classify of ID (Infectious Disease) and response to each category, develop of proactive government system and correspond to unknown IDs. There are five classification of IDs surveillance groups- Category I is extremely threatening of serious diseases (e.g., Ebola hemorrhagic fever), Category II means highly threatening infectious diseases (e.g., avian influenza of H5N1), Category III refers not highly threatening infectious diseases but it can cause outbreak in certain occupations (e.g., Cholera), Category IV is infectious diseases caused by disinfection or disposal of animals/articles but human-to-human transmission is generally rare (e.g., Hepatitis E) and Category V is infectious diseases which require the prevention of occurrence and spread of infection through the provision and feedback of the resulting essential information to the general public and healthcare professionals (e.g., Amebic dysentery). Category I, II, III, IV and most of the diseases from category V are not only under the notifiable disease surveillance but also require immediate reporting. Hospitalization, Disinfection and Traffic restriction will be done in Category I patients and hospitalization and disinfection in Category II patients. Employment restriction of specific occupations and disinfection should be done in Category III patients, measures to vector animals and disinfection in Category IV patients. Pandemic influenza (novel influenza) are caused by a virus that has recently acquired the capacity for human-to-human transmission, and that is regarded to have the potential to seriously affect the lives and health of people through rapid, nationwide spread. Therefore, Pandemic influenza or re-emerging influenza is subject to notifiable disease surveillance.
Quarantine act is to prevent pathogen causing infectious diseases which are not existed in Japan but enter into the country via vessels or aircraft and take actions for prevention of other infectious diseases borne through vessels or aircraft. Quarantine must be done in Category I of IDs, Pandemic influenza or re-emerging influenza and infectious diseases which require examinations to prevent domestic invasion of pathogens (e.g., Zika). Highly possible infectious disease (Category I IDs and Pandemic or re-emerging influenza) which entering into the country must do Isolation, retension and disinfection. The case will be transported and hospitalized to IDs designated institutions. After a predetermined period of time, that case’s isolation and retention will be solved. Rarely possible IDs must do Provisional Quarantine certificate and the case will report everyday about their current location, contact address and BT to quarantine station.
School Health Act
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) revised school Health Act in June 2018 and its revision involved three portions which are school health, school safety, and school lunch program. Numerous safety issues like preventing the risk of crime on ways to and from school and disturbance into schools by doubtful individuals are comprised in school health act. Such crime problems are very difficult for schools to solve by themselves. That’s why MEXT revised School Health Act in endeavor to prepare legal grounds and to address crimes and problems by cooperating with schools and the various bodies concerned.
Food sanitation law in Japan
In Japan, there has been increasing demand for ready-to-eat food because of increasing number of double-income households and elderly single households. That’s why, food sanitation stands as an important role in Japan. In order to certify food safety, the Japanese government is planning to amend the Food Sanitation Act and other relevant laws taking into concern of c parties such as consumers, FBOs and experts. The summary of amendment to Food sanitation act is strengthening the measures of interregional food poisoning cases which are taken by national and local governments, reinforcing food hygiene control by HACCP principles and adverse event reporting system for the food containing designated substances, improving sanitary regulations of kitchen appliances and packaging for food and food additives considering international consistency, revising the licensing system for food businesses, ensuring the imported food safety and legalizing food export administration and provisions on administrative measures, penalties.
Japan has a universal health care system that provides access to health for all citizens. However, there are two kinds of vaccine systems in Japan, routine vaccination and voluntary vaccination. The government pays for routine vaccinations while families must pay for voluntary vaccinations. Routine vaccines has been categorized into two groups of “A and B”. Category A is intended for prevention of outbreak and it includes Live vaccine of BCG, MR, Varicella and inactive vaccine of DPT-IPV, Japanese Encephalitis, HPV, PCV13, Hib. Category B is intended to prevent individual infection and it includes influenza vaccine for the old people aged above 65 years and PPSV23. Voluntary vaccine means vaccine which prevents Mumps, Rotavirus, Yellow fever, Neisseria meningitides, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis B, Rabies and Influenza. The immunization strategy is decided based upon disease surveillance, and monitoring of vaccine-associated adverse events is important to assess the safety.
- Kuniko MURAKAMI, Infectious disease law in Japan and related organizations in Tokyo, 2016 Seoul Conference, Countermeasures to combat infectious diseases in Asia, 2016.
- Takashi NOMURA, Hiroshi TAKAHASHI, and Yoshifumi TAKEDA, Changes in Measures against Infectious Diseases in Japan and Proposals for the Future, Japan Medical Association Journal, 45(9): 390-400, 2003.
- Ken TAKAYAMA, Recent Tasks of School Health Administration in Japan, Japan Medical Association Journal,53(3):144-147, 2010.
- Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Food Sanitation Act Amendment for food safety, June 2018.
- Tetsuo NAKAYAMA, Vaccine chronicle in Japan, Journal of infection and Chemotherapy, 19:787-798, 2013.