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Relationship between Intelligence and Creativity: Psychological Approach

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From an extended time, creativity has been a neglected subject in psychological research. This can be chiefly as a result of its invariably been widely believed that it has mystical influences or a divine nature. Plato said that the writer is barely able to produce what the Muse dictates and most frequently than not, even these days, writers and inventors typically mention the presence of a spiritual nature that switches their perspective to a revelatory one. However, at the start of the twentieth century, those curious about the human mind found a new interest in the matter. This generated unnumberable theories concerning the nature of creativity, however in all probability the foremost puzzling question was whether or not one should be intelligent to form one thing never seen before or to find a never before explored perspective. This essay can will present a few known opinions on the matter.

Wechsler (1944) defines intelligence (IQ) as “The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal with his or her environment effectively” or in different words it refers to one’s ability to grasp complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning and to beat the obstacles of careful thinking. Whereas, Psychologists typically outline creativity as the capability to produce ideas that are each original and adaptive. In different words, the ideas should be each new, workable or functional. Thus, creativity enables an individual to adjust to novel circumstances and to resolve issues that unexpectedly arise’ (Simonton, 2001, p.2).

The correlation between creativity and intelligence has been studied. Research by Cox and Terman (1926) proposed that although there’s a possible correlation between intelligence and creativity, it’s a moderate relationship. This means that artistic people are intelligent, however but highly intelligent needn’t be creative, this is partly owing to the method we tend to study and measure intelligence. Cox and Terman tried to estimate the IQ of 301 of the foremost eminent people who lived between 1450 and 1850. The study was severely criticized because of the undependableness of the information collected from letters, records and writings, however additionally because to the subjectiveness concerned in approximating IQs. The results were undecisive, showing that high, but not the highest, intelligence combined with great persistence can achieve greater importance than those of highest intelligence did. If somebody uses creativity to resolve a problem, if they’re faced with identical drawback within the future, intelligence may be used as the brain has already learned the way to solve the problem. Conversely, so as to resolve a problem creatively, a person’s level of intelligence provides them their place to begin. So, the lower the amount of intelligence, the tougher it’ll be to resolve the problem creatively.

A study, by Gentzel’s and Jackson (1962), was the first to prove that creativity and intelligence are independent concepts. They chose a high sample of scholars starting from sixth grade to the top of high school and then they asked them to complete one mental test and 5 alleged creative tests. Their results showed an insignificant correlation between the scores. However, Wallach and Kogan (1965) reanalysed the information and concluded that four of the creativity tests were considerably related to IQ for girls and all 5 of them for boys. They theorized that results continuing to point out that intelligence and creativity share a conceptual basic as a result of the method, tests that were administered were the same as the methods used for IQ testing. It absolutely was steered that the presentation of tests and also the frame of reference of the subject are necessary in deciding whether or not there’s an association between intelligence and creativity.

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In order to look at the connection between intelligence and creativity, psychologists have discovered methods of measuring intelligence and creativity. Psychologists classify intelligence tests into either aptitude that are supposed to predict one’s ability to find out new information (such because the Stanford-Binet test and also the construct mastery test) and achievement tests, which are supposed to check the knowledge that you have learnt (Myers, 2015. pp.392).

Supporters of the cognitive approaches usually assumed that the study of creativity was merely an associate extension of that of intelligence, mostly as it was thought that each involved identical main mental process. Norbert Jaušovec (2000) conducted a study that investigated the variations in cognitive processes associated with creativity and intelligence with the assistance of EEG coherence and power measures within the lower and higher alpha band. The participants were forty-nine students and lecturers taking a course in psychology. They were divided into four teams, supported on results in intelligence (WAIS) and creativity (Torrance) tests (gifted- high IQ and high creativity, creative- high creativity and average IQ, intelligent- high IQ and average creativity, average- average IQ and average creativity). Afterwards, they were asked to resolve 2 issues with 2 levels of complexity, that could be considered closed problems with closed solution situations, and later, that they had to resolve four creativity problems, some the same as those on creativity tests and others related with their everyday lives. Each task was completed when the individual’s EEG was being measured. Results showed that for the first task, highly intelligent people displayed less mental activity (which would translate to less effort) and bigger cooperation between brain areas than average intelligence people. Within the completion of the second task, extremely creative people displayed less mental activity than the average creativity participants. At the same time, creative people displayed better connections between brain areas than the talented or gifted individuals. The results suggested that creativity and intelligence are completely different concepts and abilities that differ within the neurological activities shown by individuals while solving open and closed problems. Results additionally imply that creativity incorporates a less pronounced influence on solving closed problems, likewise as intelligence on solving open problems.

Another distinguished hypothesis was developed by Guilford (1967) and is widely known the threshold theory, which assumes that above-average intelligence is a necessary condition for high-level creativity. This can be normally tested by dividing a sample to a threshold (e.g. a 120 IQ) and determining correlations for lower and higher IQ range (Sternberg, 2003). This technique has been criticized as there’s no apparent reason to set the threshold at a given IQ score. In attempt to overcome this problem, a study was conducted in 2013 (Jauk et. al) to research the link between intelligence and different indicators of creative potential (ability to get one thing novel and useful) and creative accomplishment (actual realization of this potential in real-life accomplishments). This was done using segmented regression analysis in an exceedingly sample of 297 people, that facilitates the detection of threshold in information by suggests that of repetitious procedure algorithms. Participants were needed to complete four subtests of the Intelligence Structure Battery (figural-inductive reasoning, verbal immediate memory, arithmetic flexibility, word meaning) for general intelligence, an alternate uses test for creative potential and the Inventory of creative Achievements. In the end, a threshold was found for creative potential, however not for creative achievement, that suggests that whereas intelligence and creative potential are highly connected up to a degree wherever they need no influence on one another, there’s no apparent relationship between intelligence and also the actual fulfilment of that potential. It ought to be noted that the study had limitations like the scale of the sample and also the IQ vary of the participants.

In response to the actual fact that most contemporary research focuses on the thought that creativity and intelligence are unrelated, Nusbaum and Silvia (2011) conducted a study on improved approaches to creativity measurement, that proposes that fluid and executive cognition is actually central to creative thought. The participants were 178 women and 48 men, all of them were university students. In the initial part of the experiment, the impact of fluid intelligence on creativity was observed by giving the people divergent thinking tasks and measuring their executive switching (the number of times individuals switched idea categories). Within the second part, half the sample were told what strategy they must use in an unusual Uses test, that was then administered to the complete sample. Individuals with high fluid thinking did better when they knew the strategy, that was in step with their ability to access and use it in spite of interference, whereas for the people with lower fluid thinking, the strategy tended slip. By combining the results of the 2 phases, the experimenters suggested that creativity is probably more convergent than modern theories assume.

In conclusion, views on the relationship between intelligence and creativity are extremely different and there’s proof to be found for each of them. Probably, the greatest problem of this area of research is finding an appropriate definition for the abstract thought of creativity, however there’s a need for replacement and creative perspective on the pertain to finally solve it.

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Relationship between Intelligence and Creativity: Psychological Approach. (2022, December 27). Edubirdie. Retrieved June 1, 2023, from
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