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Religiosity Vs. Spirituality

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Jesus, since his time, has placed children and the youth at the heart of the Christian faith. He has primarily taught how children and their humility could be a model to His disciples, that people who follow Him must be ‘like children’ (cf. Matthew 18:1-5; Matthew 19:13-15; Mark 9:33-37; Mark 10:13-16; Luke 9:46-48; Luke 18:15-17). Jesus has also invited the youth to come and follow Him (Matthew 19:16-30; Mark 10:17-31; Luke 18:18-30; Luke 24:13-35).

According to the survey conducted in the Philippines, Filipinos gave different views and opinions regarding the attitudes towards religion when identifying religiosity and spirituality. According to Mangahas and Guerrero (1992) suggest that faith and practices in an essential characteristics of religion. The inquiries descend around religious connection, e.g., Christianity, personal obligation such as religious practice and spiritual norms.

In 2001, Abad mentioned that there is a thin line between the religious and philosophical aspects suggested in local literature which were offering some new insights into how to theorize contemporary local studies regarding religion. Current empirical religious studies see the intricate nature of the social, mandatory, and theological features. The national youth survey assesses religiosity and religious spheres consist of “private practice” and “social experience.” Considering the missing inquiry which provides a comprehensive analysis of latent dimensions representing attitudes towards religion in the Philippines and in setting ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). Based on some researches, the attempts to identify scales of assessment in the local and national sense for assessing the views and opinions towards religion did not produce favorable outcomes. However, related scales developed from the West to evaluate behavior towards Christianity among Filipinos (Francis et al. 1995) are dominant, but lack some irregular characteristics that is found in recent studies (Baring et al. 2016a; Batara 2015). In 2012, Astley did another evaluation of the scale built to test attitudes towards religion. It was referred to as the Astley – Francis Scale of attitude towards theist belief. This assessment is tested in diverse western environments for internal accuracy and reliability. There has, however, been no proof for the South Asian context. Obviously, these measures delimit targets or contexts which are very specific to their design and development. A previous study, including university students in eight countries (MacDonald et al .2015).

The value and reliability of the Spirituality Expressions Inventory and the Spirituality Adjective List were assessed. From the empirical findings, the researchers considered that some cultural factor influences the youth’s perception of their religions, and that factor is race, in which it can encouragement the outcomes of Methodical design and tests. After studying the Astley – Francis Scale and the other related scales, the researchers noted that some atypical features of Filipino experiences in this setting needs to be expressed in such attempt to establish an evaluation tool for attitudes towards religion among Filipinos. The researchers looked at the diffused relationship between the religious and the spiritual, the moral/ethical viewpoints and personal views that arose in the local setting of a previous study.

The researchers completely acknowledge that the introduction of a diffused conceptualization of faith and religiosity rooted in a single context seems unlikely in tradition empirical studies regarding attitudes towards religion. On the other hand, Zwingmann claimed on 2011 that in some Western settings where religiosity is separated from spirituality because of the secular background, diffused state is not chosen. In the contrary, in 2016, Uncovering explained that the recent use of equally spirituality/religiosity as a single construct in a growing number of studet from differ environments supports our intention. Learning religiosity or religion as one makes this mix highly possible for many others.


Religion critics are opponents of beliefs, truths or religion activity and its political and social consequences. Religion has been portrayed differently over the period to some people they feel it should not be related to politics and religion. Yet, Sadly, the various religions effects politics here in the Philippines heavily.

Webster describes it as “the origin, concept, or method of ardently and faithfully held beliefs. Tylor (1996) defines it as spiritual belief. McNamara visibly states in his statement, “Try to describe religion and you are inviting an argument,” the timeless feud on the definition of religion. However, the number of definitions that it carries, all of the words have a common denominator in their connotation. It affects a more optimistic indication that it is really part of the ability of an individual, rather than getting faith in such aspects as an obstacle. That can be seen in three major religions: Christianity, Buddhism and Islam.

This style seems essential to the study of religion in question. If someone wants to fully recognize the real core of religion, they should go beyond the texts and official statements of religious authorities and believers and go into the practice of believers in everyday life. To fully understand the religion one must undergo to the everyday practice of life. Somewhere he can encounter all life circumstances. Next to official doctrine and the influence of social, political or cultural influences, this is third significant category. Religion, as well as other cultural phenomena, was established as some kind of cultural change, in particular time and place. Religion was important for local people and could served certain functional functions: psychotherapeutic at the individual level, and ethical and social at the group level (for example, complex connection between confidence in the community and disputes and violence in the inter group).

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Certain people established Judaism, Christianity and Islam, regularly using them in a political and religious way. Possibly, often the sacred texts may be change to attain those goals. For this aim these holy texts may tell more about their writers and their believers’ lives than about religion itself. One such example is the Bible, in which there is an original meaning and a updated one.

Religion is often inclined by people, and is a concept of versatility. If scholar wants to understand and explain religion, he should not just study the texts, but, make the believers a real activity. Why are numerous people still taking Christianity as their religion? Jesus was a poor man who live in the area occupied by the Roman Empire some 2000years ago. Why would the wealthy American who lives in New York take this religion for example today? Exclude all concerns relating to the supposed psychotherapeutic value of the portrayal of poor Jesus, as comfort for the disabled, homeless or sick. Find this American to be free of the issues. Why does he take faith in place of several others? Field work seems appropriate research method to explain this phenomenon and many other problems. It is used to describe the complex and alive, true existence of religion that should be unwritten as a non-statistical and historically closed phenomenon.

Religion is a concept that grows culturally and reflects the goals, characteristics and desires of people currently living. Many of the Filipinos believe you can achieve what you’ve prayed for through prayer. Currently, in the modern social and cultural context, some features appropriate to the previous life style may be inaccurate. This inadequacy particularly refers to moral, ethical and political issues. Consider the following case before the Second Vatican Council regarding the Catholic roman church. The Council has presented new solutions that had been convicted earlier, such as the concept of religious freedom, religious unity or ecumenism. The Church has demonstrated in the official political arena that these new approaches are compatible and justified by the sacred text. The official area where the holy text compatibles and supports these modern approaches. For the same way, however, the opposite of past approaches (text, tradition and the Church Magisterium) is also justified. In the same way, however, opposite prior approaches (text, tradition and the Church’s Magisterium) were also justified. The Study of the texts and phenomenology can not simplify this sense of the heart of faith, since sacred radical doctrinal or legal changes. This paper discusses what are the true causes of changes in religious attitude towards the universe.

MacDonald (2015), Says that several believers often modify official dogmas or other fundamentals of doctrine. Such approaches are also in moral and ethical problems but not just this paper will explain what religious experience means and how faith is perceived by believers. This style may explain why the same sacred text is inspiration for one adherent to be altruistic and at the same time for another to commit suicide terrorism.

Graham Harvey sees three basic essentials of the research area applied to the learning of religion. The first field is the believer’s activity. The second one is beliefs about their activity. The latter one focuses on the researchers’ beliefs and thoughtful that take religious doings.


However most empirical studies investigate religiosity in relation to other variables, the recent study has ventured to know the important essence of Filipino attitudes towards “religion” from unusual mixture of the philosophical and human aspects of belief. Through the goal to see the contours of the student’s spiritual and religious mentality, under their perspectives, the researcher ended up mining specific conceptual connections among the sacred, moral, and recognized dynamics. Baring said in 2012 that in the broader sense of the ASEAN experience related to cultural and religious diversity, this view can be better understood. The findings, on a specific note, speak of the important suggestion of different religious experiences that influence other generation. Unexpectedly, the consequences took through fundamental factors that are riddled with typical components of religious attitude: confidence in the institution, emotional reaction to God and confidence in actions. Nevertheless, the findings discern traces of spirituality/religiosity among the Filipinos. The study of religion frequently refers to two common theoretical methods: positivism and reductionism.

Religious matters tend to encompass, despite this naturalistic propensity, not only explanation of religious objects but also interpretation and understanding of religious subjects. This subjective approach is especially highlighted by feminist mythology in the study of religion, which demonstrates that academics frequently involve from their private point of view. A more significant question is the mysterious nature of faith itself. The particular components are special, and involve complex research methods. The political or economic strategies of the main religious organizations are very different from the private mediation of one believer. These are aspects of the same phenomena which are equally important: religion.

The overhead is an ideology when the point of view of intellectuals is decided by some specific concepts, ideologies, etc. The past case is connected with philosophical perspective which is especially preferred. Naturalist scholars may have more leanings to view religion automatically and atheistically than scholars-dualist.

Religion is the similar dynamic social, economic. Psychological and political phenomenon to be studied by judgement to a mixed pluralistic method to study.


  1. Abad, R. 2001. Religion in the Philippines. Philippine Studies 49: 337-67 Retrieved from
  2. Astley, Jeff, Leslie Francis, and Mandy Robbins. 2012. Assessing attitude towards religion: The Astley–Francis Scale of attitude towards theistic faith. British Journal of Religious Education 34:183–93. Retrieved from
  3. Baring, Rito. 2012. Children’s Image of God and their parents: explorations in children’s Spirituality. International Journal of Children’s Spirituality 17: 277–89. Retrieved from
  4. Baring, Rito, Romeo Lee, Madelene Sta. Maria, and Yan Liu. 2016. Configurations of student spirituality/religiosity: Evidence from a Philippine university. International Journal of Children’s Spirituality 21: 163–76. Retrieved from
  5. Baring, Rito, Dennis Erasga, Elenita Garcia, Jeane Peracullo, and Lars Ubaldo. 2016. The Young and the sacred: an analysis of empirical evidence from the Philippines. Young 25: 26–44. Retrieved from
  6. Büssing, Arndt. 2017. Measures of Spirituality/Religiosity: Description of Concepts and Validation of Instruments. Religions 8: 11.
  7. Francis, Leslie, John Lewis, Ronald Philipchalk, Laurence Brown, and David Lester. 1995. The internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the Francis scale of attitude toward Christianity (adult) among undergraduate students in the U.K., U.S.A., Australia and Canada. Personality and Individual Differences 19: 949–53. Retrieved from
  8. MacDonald, Douglas, Friedman Harris, Brewczynski Jacek, Holland Daniel, Salagame Kiran Kumar, Mohan Krishna, Gubrij Zuzana Ondriasova, and Cheong Hye Wook. 2015. Spirituality as a Scientific Construct: Testing Its Universality across Cultures and Languages. PLoS ONE 10: e0117701. Retrieved from
  9. Mangahas, Mahar, and Linda Guerrero. 1992. Religion in the Philippines: The 1991 ISSP Survey. Manila: SWS Occasional Paper, May. Retrieved from
  10. Zwingmann, Christian, Klein Constantin, and Büssing Arndt. 2011. Measuring Religiosity/Spirituality: Theoretical Differentiations and Categorization of Instruments. Religions 2:345–57. Retrieved from

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