Advance illumination instruments have changed the scenario in distribution and intensity of lighting systems in this world. Development from fluorescent to white LED (light emitting diode) opens the door of illumination, pest control application and eco-friendly lighting.
Color sensitivity in UV spectrum plays crucial role in navigation; meet selection, excitation in terrestrial invertebrate animals. This review shows the importance of each wavelength while selecting any lighting system for environmental applications. All major scientific studies are scanned as per the photo-axial behavior of insect at specific wavelength of light. The results are collected to prepare the wavelength bank based on secondary data and existing hypothesis. It is suggested that, while adopting advance low-power, environmental friendly LED based lighting devices, it is important to investigate its spectral parameters and its effect on insects. Existing limited response model are incompatible for assessment of LED based lighting system.
Key words: LED, insect behavior to light, eco-friendly LED
Animals are sensitive to light, and nearly all have some form of identifiable photoreceptors (light sensors). In the invertebrates there is a huge range in the complexity and capability of light-sensitive structures that respond to changes in light levels, to the complex compound eye of insects that detects light and is able to form images. Arthropods, mollusks have eyes that are extremely sensitive and they are perhaps most affected by changes in light.Light and darkness are a major environmental factor that affect lives of many animals, including invertebrates. Arthropods such as insects and crustaceans have compound eyes that are sensitive to a broad range of light. Most insects have a color vision system that is based on three or four, sometimes five, types of color receptor cells. Light wavelengths are measured in nanometers (nm) and most insects can perceive the spectral region from ultraviolet (UV) which has a short wavelength and high frequency (300nm) to red which has a long wavelength and a low frequency (700 nm).Insects are very sensitive to a broad spectrum of light ranging from ultraviolet (UV) to red. Color sensitivity in the UV spectrum plays an important role in foraging, navigation, and mate selection in both flying and terrestrial invertebrate animals. This attraction to UV light has made insects a useful model for understanding visual sensitivity to UV light (Stark and Tan, 1982).insect having the compound eye due to help of these compound eye beetle can see in UV light. Compound eye made-up by light-sensitive ommatidia. A compound eye typically contains three types of photoreceptor cells with spectral sensitivity to the UV, blue, and green wavelength regions, respectively as exemplified in honeybees (Fig.1) (Menzel and Blakers 1976). In the order hymenoptera, some sawflies have been shown to have red receptors as well (Peitsch et al. 1992). At any rate, it is likely that many insects can perceive UV light as a unique color (Koshitaka et al. 2008; von Helversen 1972).Beetle is the predominant order of insects in the existing epoch.Insect continually get the stimuli form the environment. Insect must respond to the right stimuli and do the right thing at the right time like escape, located a food source,feed located a mate,copulateoviposit,migrate, become dormant and so on.Light also effect on the insect life cycle like egg laying copulation metamorphosis natural processes. This review fills the gap between insects response to light and existing lighting modules. The secondary data and outcome collected in the all cited studies is related to insects and their behavior to light. Identification of wavelength and its response to light i.e. wavelength bank can be useful for design and development of environment-friendly LED for agriculture lighting system, horticulture and urban forest lighting etc.
Insect with ecological relationship:
Insect are most important organism on earth it’s maintain the ecological balance and environment it is one of the most important part of the food chain. Insect are the decomposer and detritivores. Insects and their arthropod relatives are responsible for much of the nutrient cycling, conditioning and aeration of the soil. The value of nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems is estimated to be over $3 trillion per year (Costanza et al. 1997). Insects and related arthropods make up half the animal biomass in some tropical forests (Fittkau and Linge 1973).insects are control the other population of insect by predation. Pollination About 80% of the flowering plants on Earth are pollinated by insects. Color of the various flower are attracted insect for the pollination. Insect are the natural biological pest control it control the production of other insect. Insects are excellent indicators of ecosystem health. The numbers of species and kinds of species of insects can tell scientists if a particular ecosystem is healthy or disturbed.
Insects provide a service to humanity. The focus is about the relationship between humans, insects, and the environment. The health of the ecosystem is dependent upon the exploration of these relationships. The aspects of entomology include human understanding of agriculture of human and animal health, biology and even criminology in the form of forensic entomology. Entomology has long studied the defensive role of insects, and it is within that role that new medications may be obtained and used to treat human disease. (Ahmed Munir-2004). Insects and crustaceans (phylum Arthropoda) have compound eyes A compound eye consists of up to several thousand light detectors called ommatidia each with its own light-focusing lens Each ommatidium detects light from a tiny portion of the visual field. A compound eye is very effective at detecting movement, an important adaptation for flying insects and small animals constantly threatened with predation.human eye can distinguish only about 50 flashes of light per second, the compound eyes of some insects can detect flickering at six times that rate. (If they slipped into a movie theater, these insects could easily resolve each frame of the film being projected as a separate still image.) Insects also have excellent color vision, and some (including bees) can see into the ultraviolet (UV) range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Because UV light is invisible to humans, we miss seeing differences in the environment that bees and other insects detect. In studying animal behavior, we cannot simply extrapolate our sensory world to other species; different animals have different sensitivities and different brain organizations.
Effect of Wavelength Comparisons of assay responses between wavelengths were made using narrow bandwidth (10 nm) interference filters that corresponded to a maximum transmission of 350 (UV), 365 (UV), 380 (UV), 405 (violet), 430 (indigo), 500 (green), 550 (green), 580 (yellow) and 620 nm (orange/red). Final direction of movement and distance of each psyllid was also obtained. Psyllid response to white light and light at 365 nm at different intensities was obtained to better characterize the effect of light intensity on response in the assay arena. Comparisons were made between unfiltered white light or from the 365 nm filter, and light mitigated with neutral density filters over a range of optical densities (OD) (0.1–4.0)
All the studies on moth:
Positive phototaxis Behaviour of Insects :
Moth has their own existence which is important to plant earth however the pyralidae,sphingidae, noctuidae are the family of moth insect which includes snout moths, hawk moths, owlet moth. Nowadays the artificial lighting are widely used in our surrounding that affect the insect world including invertebrates and vertebrates species. The more ultraviolet expansion lamps attract insect toward light source that effect and increase hazardous to community of insects nowadays there are some invention related to light specially LED lights which has a wavelength that does not affect moth or insect community these type of lights are available in wide rang in night lighting system in which a particular wavelength is used for particular site thus insect community cannot detect the photons and not to attract which helps to increase insect population. This light are made by manufacture such as Philips and Zumtobel which emit wavelength that repel insect from light source. As compared to domestic used this lights can be used for positive effect on moths and insect community. These lights are used for repellant however some flies species and midges that hazardous to environmental which is present in insect community. All this insect species which used be attracted using lights thus there are wide range of lights that used for attraction purpose so that the research can be establish such research are held in 2016 from the Great lake entomologist in which they state that some insect attract at ultraviolet lights. Pyralidae, sphingide, noctuidae community is insect community that attract at ultraviolet light in large quantity. ref( december 2017) the ability of specific-wavelength led lights to attract night-flying insects ryan s. zemel hillsdale college david houghton) .moths are attracted towards photons that used to visualize by their eyes at night time. The effect of light attraction is that light create disturbance nature so that insect are attracted to light which content ultraviolet light this phenomenon called phototactic effect. Such lights are used in street lighting, large building parking area in high voltage lamps are used to propagate the vehicle. So to overcome this problem LED light are used that do not content UV light spectrum such light has high intensity and power efficient modeling ref(PYLAS LED spotlight luminaire) this type led used for focusing the area.
Attraction toward lights is the nature of insect in which insect are sensitive to photons with help of Ultraviolet light as a attractant we can identify insect species and understand the nature of insect and species which is Phototaxis behavior of insect and identified insect species with respect to wavelength (visible UV) this study is useful for insect population and pest control
As per the Thomas M.paris ref(30) the insect is phototaxis more over the range 350 nm,365 nm, 380 nm and 400 nm of wavelength where the insect pigment get attracted toward the wavelength not over the intensity of the light. Ultraviolet light consist U.V A (315 to 400 nm),U.V B (280 to 315 nm) and U.V C (100 to 280 nm), Ultraviolet light in Light emitting diode consist low power consumption rating which is economical for insect trapping device however traditionally incandescent lamps used for insect trap which is neither efficient nor economical. U.V LEDs for insect trapping is good improvement in pest control.
Negative phototaxis behaviour of the Insects:(Add some behaviour studies)
Repellent wavelength lamp that used to repel insect from domestic and historical building are necessary that provide protection from pest and unwanted insect attack, repellent wavelength lamp are available in market which content longer wavelength that repel insect from light sources.in our ecosystem insect has there own valuable contribution in between that the abundance of population of insect cause surplus the amount of ecological defect however insect that attract towards the light get repel using longer wavelength light such light used in domestic building example mosquito repellent light. Bug lights manufactured with longer wavelength which consist yellow spectrum with warm light that less phototaxis for insect almost negative phototaxis.
The wavelength spectrum of available LEDs in the market:
Broad wavelength lights are available in the market to fulfill the demand. Many wavelength specific lighting units are available in the market to fulfill demand of market. Accordingly the different lighting devices has been identified and its wavelength, luminance get segregated as per the wavelength.As old traditional techniques incandescent lamps are used as attractant for insect trap whoever this techniques are not efficient,economical because incandescent lamps consume more power and emit longer wavelength that least insect attract towards light, insect vision is depends on there displacement condition where insect sensitive near the freshwater area and organize community and reproduce their species, now days light emitting diode are used for artificial lighting, LED lighting is efficient and economical over incandescent,compact fluorescent lamp lighting.light emitting diode can be used as an insect attractant where different wavelength which consist shorter wavelength like U.V (A,B,C) and shorter wavelength light are given table no.1, which consist uv lights having (320 nm to 400 nm) and bugs lights which used as an attractant for mosquitoes and biting sand flies,shorter wavelength contained wavelength which phototaxis for insect, insect get attracted towards the wavelength specification, as below show the graphical representation of insect phototaxis vision. Ultraviolet light consist shorter wavelength that attract insect as compare to longer wavelength
Longer wavelength consist red light spectrum that for insect and animals least attracted light
The luminance from……...to …..are the commonly……
fig :- Bar Graphical Representation of Wavelength
Light Lamp information that used in Different Experiment
Light lamps are widely used for controlling the unwanted appearance of insect and pest that damage environment and ecological condition by there population and big colonization. bulbs are used for overcoming the effect and manage to control insect population.for domestic used Light emitting diode is developed to repel or attract insect as per condition emphasize.
Below shows the wavelength specifice light that used for positive phototaxis and negative phototaxis effect for insect
Philips (Party Lustre P45)
Table no 1.
Material and method:
This literature research composed in the first quarter of 2016 in reference of web of science (ISI) knowledge and google scholar database. More than fifty research articles were selected that includes a conclusive interpretation of ecological studies its wavelength relevance. However, the complete hypothetical review of all species was beyond the scope of this paper. The experimental, repeated wavelength specific studies were selected to identify the exact mechanism between insect and ecological relationship. Major similar studies were selected to specify the wavelength bank and mechanism of insect-illumination-its phototaxis behaviour towards light. Different wavelength of a light shows different behavior of insect its vairi according to the intensity and wavelength of light.in this research article show different insect family and species are having a specific wavelength to attract and respond it. Insect behaviour over the range of shorter wavelength which consist ultraviolet wavelength is more attractive and phototaxis, spectral sensitivity of the insect eye is based on insect community,ref(33)state that lighting emitting diode is innovative invention, Led can be manufactured in various color formed
Results and discussion:
Insects as per the species and its wavelengths:
The table no……….Shows that the segregation of the insects and their common response to the specific wavelength of the light. They are divided as per the order, species and wavelength.
Positive Phototaxis or Negative phototaxis
- Coccinella septempunctata
- 360 nm,420nm,523nm
- 365-550 nm
- 525-575 nm
- 520-540 nm
- 520-540 nm 365-500 nm
- 475-550 nm
- 500-550 nm
silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia tabaci
Orius insidiosus (insidious flower bug)
300 nm 530 nm
UV blue white 310nm-520nm
Violet Blue 400nm-500nm
Bombus terrestris dalmatinus
2. Encarsia Formosa
3. Bombus impatiens
4. Bombus terrestris sassaricus
5. Bombus terrestris
340 nm,520 nm
380 nm, U.V
440 nm,550 nm
1. Tetranychus Urticae
2. Neoseiulus womersleyi
280 nm 400 nm
1. net-winged insects
Table no 2.
Result and discussion:
Insect responds to every light and it shows its behavior against it above result shows that the intensity of light is attracted different order in Class- Insect Phylum Arthropoda .about Nine Order in class insect 30 Species are observed and study the responses against the light order include Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Thysanoptera, Neuroptera, Dictyoptera. Results also shows the specific range of specie to respond against the light and the positive and negative behavior of insects.