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Review of Related Literature and Studies on Drunk Driving

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Review of Related Literature and Studies

The literature and studies cited in this chapter tackle the different concept, understanding, and ideas, generalizations or conclusions and different development related to proposed system entitled SafeDrive: An Android Application for Alcohol Sensing Alert System and Automatic Engine Disabling for Merchandisers Riders Club Philippines.

Technical Background

It gives details the hardware and software requirements specification including information technology innovation that has been used in the integration of the proposed system

Hardware Requirements

Hardware is a storage device that is used for storing, porting and extracting data files and objects. It holds and stores information both temporarily and permanently to a computer, server or any similar computing device. In order to work the proposed system, the researchers have to achieve the correct hardware items to be used such as Arduino Uno, a microcontroller board based on the ATmega328 (datasheet), MQ-3, useful for gas leakage detection, L293D Motor Driver, acts as an interface between Arduino and the motors, Piezzo Buzzer, LEDs, Breadboard, Resistors, and LCD display.

Software Requirements

Software is a generic term for organized collections of computer data and instructions. The following are the set of programs designed to generate a history logs for location tracker system. The things to be used in the proposed system are Arduino IDE, Android Studio, and SQLite.

Foreign Literatures

Foreign Literature are information that are in foreign country that have been published. This will help the researchers further their knowledge about the system.

Risk factors for motorcycle loss-of-control crashes. Wu (2018) stated that poor road adhesion significantly increased the risk of losing control; the risk increased more than 20-fold when deteriorated road adhesion was encountered unexpectedly, due to loose gravel, ice, oil, bumps, road marking, metal plates, etc. For motorcyclists, riding with a positive blood alcohol concentration (over or equal to the legal limit of 0.5 g/L) was very dangerous, often resulting in losing control. The risk of LOC crash varied for different types of motorcycle: Riders of roadsters and sports bikes were more likely to have an LOC crash greater than that of riders of basic or touring motorcycles. In addition, LOC risk increased with speed; a model using the square of the traveling speed showed better fit than one using speed itself.

The article is related to the proposed system which is concerned about motorcyclists who drive under that influence of alcohol. The article stated that when a rider has taken alcohol over or even the to the legal limit could be still dangerous. The proposed system has the its objective where in, the engine will lock up once a person has detected by the sensor regardless of the amount of the alcohol he or she has taken.

Motorcycle helmet type and the risk of head injury and neck injury during motorcycle collisions in California. Rice, T. (2016) stated that The use of novelty motorcycle helmets is often prompted by beliefs that wearing a standard helmet can contribute to neck injury during traffic collisions. The goal of this analysis was to examine the association between helmet type and neck injury risk and the association between helmet type and head injury. Helmet type was strongly associated with head injury occurrence but was not associated with the occurrence of neck injury. Rider age, rider alcohol use, and motorcycle speed were strong, positive predictors of both head and neck injury. Interventions to improve motorcycle helmet choice and to counteract misplaced concerns surrounding neck injury risk are likely to lead to reductions in head injury, brain injury, and death.

The proposed system somehow shows the relativeness to the article. One of the main takeaways in the proposed system is helmet. The motorcyclists are not only able to start the engine when he or she is drunk. They are not also being able to start the engine when they have do not put their helmet on. The proponents used a force sensing type of sensor that can detect whether a motorcyclist has a helmet on.

The Dangers of Drunk Driving. According to T. Buddy (2019), Although traffic fatalities have been on the decline in recent years, alcohol-related crashes still kill about 10,000 people per year in the United States, with alcohol a factor in one out of three motor vehicle deaths, according to the CDC. Despite all the warnings, public awareness and educational programs, stiffer penalties for violations, people will still get behind the wheel of their vehicles while intoxicated. While drunk driving numbers have decreased in the past couple of decades for youths and teens, they are still at risk whether they are the drivers or not. Motor vehicle wrecks are the leading cause of death in the United States for persons under age 24, whether as the driver or the passenger, with almost half involving alcohol as a factor in the crash A driver with a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.10 or greater is seven times more likely to be involved in a fatal motor vehicle crash than a driver who has not consumed alcoholic beverages, and a driver with an alcohol concentration of 0.15 or greater is about 25 times more likely. Basically, the more you drink, the more likely you are to have an accident and a fatal one. The same applies for the likelihood of having any vehicle accident, fatal or otherwise. Here are the cold, hard facts. 160-pound person drinking two 12-ounce beers within an hour would probably have a BAC of 0.02, well below the legal limits of driving under the influence, but 1.4 times more likely to have an accident than someone who is sober. One of the problems with setting the legal limit for ‘drunk driving’ at a blood-alcohol content level of 0.08 is it sends the message that if you are not yet legally drunk, you are therefore okay to drive. The problem lies in the fact that impairment begins long before you reach the 0.08 level. Scientific research shows explicitly that some of the skills that you need to drive safely begin to deteriorate even at the 0.02 blood-alcohol level. Experiments have shown that drivers at the 0.02 level experience a decline in visual functions their ability to track a moving object and experience a decline in the ability to perform two tasks at the same time.

According to the article despite all the warning regarding drunk driving accidents. People still tends to drive while intoxicated even though the know it can lead to accidents. So with the use of the proposed system, those people who still drive even though they are intoxicated can no longer use their motorcycles. Because it will detect the driver if the driver has alcohol content in his body. so if the proposed system sense an alcohol content. It can no longer run until it can no longer sense an alcohol to the driver.

Drinking and Driving, According to S. Kathleen (2019), Driving under the influence is a huge problem in our country. In the United States, almost 30 people die every day in crashes that involve a driver impaired by alcohol. That’s at least one death an hour. There are over 100 million self-reported instances of alcohol-impaired driving every year, and over a million drivers are arrested for driving under the influence of alcohol or other drugs. A third of all fatal car crashes involve an intoxicated person. Most incidents involved alcohol, but other drugs are involved in about 18% of motor vehicle deaths. The cost of these crashes reaches into the tens of billions each year. Young people are especially at risk for drinking and driving. Of the drivers with a blood alcohol concentration higher than 0.08%, one out of 3 were between the ages of 21 and 24. Motorcyclists are also at risk. A third of motorcyclists killed in fatal crashes have BAC’s above the legal limit. Finally, if you have a previous driving while impaired (DWI) conviction, you are seven times more likely to be involved in a fatal car crash involving drugs or alcohol.

With the use of the proposed system, the amount of intoxicated drivers that uses motorcycle will decrease the probability of having an accident because the proposed system will secure the motorcycle for them not to be able to use it while they are intoxicated.

Drinking and Driving, According to National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (2019), Alcohol is a substance that reduces the function of the brain, impairing thinking, reasoning and muscle coordination. All these abilities are essential to operating a vehicle safely. As alcohol levels rise in a person’s system, the negative effects on the central nervous system increase, too. Alcohol is absorbed directly through the walls of the stomach and small intestine. Then it passes into the bloodstream where it accumulates until it is metabolized by the liver. Alcohol level is measured by the weight of the alcohol in a certain volume of blood. This is called Blood Alcohol Concentration, or BAC. At a BAC of .08 grams of alcohol per deciliter (g/dL) of blood, crash risk increases exponentially. Because of this risk, it’s illegal in all 50 States, the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico to drive with a BAC of .08 or higher. However, even a small amount of alcohol can affect driving ability. In 2017, there were 1,837 people killed in alcohol-related crashes where drivers had lower alcohol levels (BACs of .01 to .07 g/dL).

With the help of the proposed system, it will be able to detect if the driver is intoxicated enough so that they can no longer use their motorcycle and with it the people that have accident with the use of motorcycle will be lessen.

Local Literature

Local Literature are information that are in local country that have been published. This will help the researchers further their knowledge about the system.

2018 PH drunk-driving figures will leave you scratching your head. According to Laurel (2018), Statistics provided by the Land Transportation Office (LTO) show that between January 1 and June 30, 2018, a measly 100 motorists were apprehended for violating Republic Act 10586, or driving while under the influence of alcohol or dangerous drugs and similar substances. It gets worse: The 100 apprehensions above only refer to first-time offenders. How many were caught driving under the influence a second time? The situation becomes more of a head-scratcher when you realize authorities are actually equipped to enforce the anti-drunk driving law. Since 2015, the government has bought and issued 756 breath analyzers. What’s more, 818 LTO, Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA), and Philippine National Police (PNP) personnel have been deputized to handle the situation since 2016.

This local literature shows that drunk driving is really hard to stop and prevent from happening. Breathalyzers are a good thing but they will be needing lots of men in order to check almost all of the riders, through their breath, and still some can still bypass this kind of manual checking. With the use of the proponents ideas, SafeDrive, will be helpful since it’s a self-working system embedded on the motorcycle.

Traffic Enforcers Train in Using Breathalyzers. According to Katerina Francisco (2015), the breath analyzers to be used for the enforcement of the anti-drunk driving law starting Thursday, March 12, are calibrated to Philippine standards and are designed to be user-friendly. This is according to the supplier of the device and which the traffic enforcers deputized by the Land Transportation Office (LTO) found out for themselves in a training session on Tuesday. Alexander Sevilla of Philippine Blue Cross Biotech Corporation, the supplier of the Fit 333 breathalyzers, spoke to around 100 personnel from the LTO’s regional offices, the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA), the Philippine National Police Highway Patrol Group, and local government units gathered at the LTO office in Quezon City for a 3-day workshop for the enforcement of Republic Act 10586. RA 10586, or the Anti-Drunk and Drugged Driving Act of 2013, seeks to penalize drivers whose blood alcohol content (BAC) exceeds the allowable legal limit. For non-professional drivers, their BAC should not exceed 0.05%. Professional drivers and drivers of public utility vehicles (PUVs), however, must have no trace of alcohol at all – anything higher than 0% will be subject to penalty. Drivers found guilty of violating the law face fines, imprisonment, and a revocation of their licenses.

The literature has the same concept as the proposed system which it has the range to detect whether the driver is drunk or not. They have used the breathalyzers which is concentrated sensor that detects someone breath. The MQ-3 has the same function for it has to detect a concentrated air to produce an output.

In Numbers: Road Crash Incidents in the Philippines. According to Sy, K. (2017), every year, 1.25 million people around the world die due to road crashes – a global problem that the World Health Organization (WHO) says is both predictable and preventable. Most of the victims come from low and middle-income countries. Those in the prime of their lives are particularly vulnerable, with road injuries the leading cause of death among those 15-29 years old. The Philippines is also seeing worrying figures, with data from the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) showing that the number of deaths due to road crashes has been increasing since 2006. According to the latest available data, 10,012 people died due to road crashes in 2015 – a 45.76% increase from 6,869 deaths recorded in 2006.

The proposed system’s objective is to lessen the vehicular accidents due to the recklessness of the driver. The article shows the statistical list of incident occurred through the years. By developing a sensor that can detect an alcohol gas, it would contribute to the individuals for their safeness.

How drunk is “drunk driving?”. According to The Philippine Star (2014), Christmas season is around the corner, and with that comes a deluge of Christmas parties and get-togethers. For party-going-and-drinking drivers, it’s also time to be reminded of the recently implemented Anti-Drunk & Drugged Driving Act of the Philippines (Republic Act 10586 or for simplicity here “Anti-Drunk Driving Act”). Under the Anti-Drunk Driving Act, a person found driving while under the influence of alcohol can go to prison (from a minimum of three months to a maximum of 20 years) and/or be subject to a fine (from a minimum of P20,000 to a maximum of P500,000) plus suspension of the driver’s license for 12 months for the first offense, and perpetual revocation of the driver’s license for the second offense. For professional drivers, their driver’s license may be perpetually revoked after a first offense.

The proponents come up with the idea of a detector that could prevent road accident. Through the proposed system, it could help drivers from the fines and as well as accidents.

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Prevent Car Theft with GPS Tracker 2016 – Manila GPS Trackers. Car thefts are always an issue in big cities like Manila – even taxi companies have car thefts. You can prevent car theft with GPS tracker installed. In the taxi article the taxi was stolen because the driver went out of the taxi to ring the doorbell. The taxi obviously did not have a GPS tracker. A GPS tracker is a small device (size of a small phone) that is hidden inside your vehicle. If your vehicle is stolen, you simply track the location of the vehicle on your smartphone. You can alert the Philippines police department as to the location of your vehicle.

The proposed system uses GPS to easily track the motorcyclist once he or she has been detected by the sensor and motor has stopped. It consists of GPS device that is being installed, as well as the software which collects data.

Foreign Studies

Foreign studies is a related information to the study of the researchers in the foreign country. Studies are usually found in unpublished or published thesis, article, and journals. It also helps researchers to add information that found in other studies.

Effectiveness of ignition interlock devices in reducing drunk driving recidivism. According to Coben, five of the six studies found interlocks were effective in reducing DWI recidivism while the interlock was installed in the car. In the five studies demonstrating a significant effect, participants in the interlock programs were 15%–69% less likely than controls to be re-arrested for DWI. The only reported randomized, controlled trial demonstrated a 65% reduction in re-arrests for DWI in the interlock group, compared with the control group. Alcohol ignition interlock programs appear to be effective in reducing DWI recidivism during the time period when the interlock is installed in the car. Future studies should attempt to control for exposure and determine if certain sub-groups are most benefited by interlock programs.

The proponents installed the device on a motorcycle, instead of a car. It will disable also the engine of the motorcycle once it has detected that the driver has no helmet on and once detected that the driver was drunk.

Potentials of Smart Breathalyzer: Interventions for Excessive Drinking Among College Students. According to Min (2018), excessive drinking among college students is a significant public health issue. Electronic Screening Brief Intervention (e-SBI) has been shown to be an effective prevention tool, and it has been implemented on personal computers, web, mobile phones and social networking platforms. They asked college students to discuss about their perception of BACtrack Mobile Pro, the FDA-approved and consumer-oriented smart breathalyzer. They recruited 15 college students who have consumed alcohol regularly, asked them to use the smart breathalyzer for two weeks, and conducted pre- and post-study surveys and interviews. They identified five barriers with design opportunities for the smart breathalyzer: (1) Support from immediate family members or close friends, (2) Personalized results, (3) Intuitive status display, (4) Accessorizing the form factor, and (5) Quicker access. Future mobile and smart wearable e-SBI interventions targeted at college students should take these design considerations into account.

Using breathalyzer is not enough to monitor everyone who has been drunk driving on the road unless there is a checkpoint, or an accident. But aside these, there is a higher percentage of not monitoring half of those drunk drivers on the road. That is why, the proponent’s study will be a big help for those who are using motorcycle. It will be embedded on the motorcycle and the engine will be disabled unless the provided air from the driver’s breath is clean and has undetectable alcohol presence.

Design and Characterization of Breath Analysis System for BAC Prediction. According to Chen, M. (2015), in order to analyze the breath, two sensors were needed, the alcohol gas sensor and the humidity sensor. The sensors were integrated with Atmega 328p based microcontroller on an Arduino board. The Arduino was connected with an Android application to measure the BAC (Blood Alcohol Content). A BAC as little as 0.02% can affect or impair a person’s reasoning ability and motion control. These factors can result to a dangerous situation while driving and making decisions on the road. To maintain the highest level of safety, it is desirable to have an individual system to monitor BAC.

The proposed system requires the count of BAC of the driver. This study shows how much important knowing one’s BAC before driving because a very little amount can cause too much damage to everyone. The researchers were going to make a device similar to the breath analyzer, and the materials mentioned above is almost the same materials that the researchers are going to use.

Vehicle Accident Prevention Using Sensors. Based on Bhavani, K. (2018), vehicular accidents mostly occur if the driving is inadequate, and one of the main factors is the driver’s drowsiness. The sensors help in controlling accidents due to unconsciousness through different sensors. And one of these sensors is the alcohol sensor or the MQ-3 sensor. This sensor is not only sensitive to alcohol, particularly ethanol, which is a type of alcohol. It can be used to determine the driver’s blood alcohol level.

The proposed system of researchers is going to be a device made of MQ-3 sensor, which is attached on the driver’s seat. If alcohol was detected in the driver’s breath, the ignition of the car is going to be seized. Otherwise, it will start. The result of the alcohol detected will going to be recorded on the user’s android application connected to the device. The device will immediately send an SMS to the family contact of the driver to let them know that the driver is drunk.

The effects of drug and alcohol consumption on driver injury severities in single-vehicle crashes. Behnood (2017) stated that it is well known that alcohol and drugs influence driving behavior by affecting the central nervous system, awareness, vision, and perception/reaction times, but the resulting effect on driver injuries in car crashes is not fully understood. The purpose of the study was to identify factors affecting the injury severities of unimpaired, alcohol-impaired, and drug-impaired drivers. The estimation results show significant differences in the determinants of driver injury severities across groups of unimpaired, alcohol-impaired, and drug-impaired drivers. The findings also show that unimpaired drivers are understandably more responsive to variations in lighting, adverse weather, and road conditions, but these drivers also tend to have much more heterogeneity in their behavioral responses to these conditions, relative to impaired drivers.

The relativity of this study to the proposed system is they have the same concern when it comes to a person under the influence of alcohol. It is clearly written that when a person is intoxicated, he or she is prone to accident that would lead to death. The proposed system has the ability to somehow lessen the said accident by preventing the motor to start up as soon as the driver has been detected.

Local Studies

Local studies is a related information to the study of the researchers in the native land. Studies are usually found in unpublished or published thesis, article, and journals. It also help researchers to add information that found in other studies.

Modeling Motorcycle Accident Severity in the Philippines Using Helmet Use, Riding Experience and Driving Behavior. According to Seva, R. (2017), the law on drunk driving was only implemented in 2015 upon procurement of breath analyzers to conduct checkpoints to drivers. The law was quite new and poorly implemented so many drivers are not frightened to driver under the influence of alcohol. The World Health Organization gave the Philippines a rating of 1 out of 10 in the enforcement of this law in 2015 (World Health Organization, 2015). The authorities can regularly conduct breath tests as means of introducing the Anti-Drunk and Drugged Driving Law to the riding population. The tests can be conducted especially during weekends and holidays when more people are more inclined to drink. The Philippine government will prioritize the procurement of these breathalyzers because as of 2017, there is a limited number available (Sauler, 2017).

One of the proponent’s objectives is to simultaneously prevent drunk driving without the authorities having a checkpoint to checkpoint checking. The proposed system could prevent more road accidents than the road checking with breathalyzers since the authorities have only limited amount of time to check the driver’s breathe. Through this device, every driver can be simultaneously checked while driving or even before driving, and stop them from using the car if detected as drunk. Since the law about drunk driving is new and implementing this is quite hard, having this device attached from car to car will be a big help for the authorities to implement the law.

Arduino-Based Food and Water Dispenser for Pets with GSM Technology Control. GSM technology is a machine that responds through the use os SMS. With the use of cellular phone, which is economically and readily available as means of transmitting via SMS, a person can be able to look over their pets in terms of feeding (Beltran, 2015). The GSM contains SIM900D, a module buffered UART, fused input power, a manual power switch, and also a SIM card holder. It enables the machine to perform a function of a basic phone, like being able to send and receive text messages from other mobile phone users.

The researchers’ device contains GSM, for the system to be able to connect and send messages to the driver’s family and allows them to know if the driver is currently under the influence of alcohol. This study can help the researchers upon adding the GSM feature of their device.

Ignition Interlock Device for Motorcycles. The major component of an Ignition Interlock Device is the breathalyzer which determines the alcohol toxicity of the driver by exhaling to the sensor. The car breathalyzer calculates the blood alcohol content and only allows the car to start if the blood alcohol content level is within the accepted value. If the device detects an alcohol level higher than the accepted value, the car will not start. If the driver is not able to provide a clean breath sample, the device will log the event.

The researchers will set a minimum value of alcohol content for which is still acceptable for a driver to use the car, but if the BAC detected on the driver’s breath exceeds to the given limit, the car will not start. The study mentioned above applied the device to the motorcycles, while the researchers are applying the device to four wheeler cars.

Non-Invasive Detection of Human Body Liquor Intake Based on Optical Biosensor. According to Abaoag, C. (2018), alcohol related incidents are increasing despite the implementation of RA 10586, the Anti-Drunk or Drugged Driving Act of 2013. Blood alcohol content is tested with the use of breathalyzers. The sensor will act as an alternative alcohol detection platform, which will provide low-cost analysis of BAC or blood alcohol content.

This study shows how the alcohol sensing device costs lower than the usual amount it will take if the driver was requested to have his breath tested. Some of the authorities still use the clinical way of testing blood alcohol content, which is not preventive since most of the time they get the driver tested on the clinic if an incident has happened, while this device can be easily used anytime and at the same time can prevent accidents caused by drunk driving.

Crime Tracking Device Using GPS and SMS Technologies. Based on observation, Almario (2015), conducted experimentation to develop the device using program simulators and trainers to test the functionality of the hardware and the software. The GSM module was interfaced to send and receive notifications. The application developed was connected to Google Map to know the exact location of the user. In places where there is no stable signal of the GPS, the device will stop tracking and will only continue after a signal is received. The data used by the server relied on the data sent by the tracking device; if there is no data from the device, there will be no result to be viewed in the server.

The study and the proposed system has the same concern as they both use a GSM and a GPS. The GPS in the proposed system is used to locate the motorcyclist while the GSM is used to send a message to the relatives of the latter.

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Review of Related Literature and Studies on Drunk Driving. (2022, August 12). Edubirdie. Retrieved December 5, 2022, from
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