Cancer is a disease causes due to mutation in cells and damaged the whole immune system. There are a lot of methods and treatments are used to cure it. And one of them is the use of robots to treat the cancerous part. in it, following are used as nanotechnology, prostate treatment, cyber knife robotics etc
It is a disease that causes the cells to divide uncontrollably and results into tumors, damaged immune system and other impairment that can be fatal. There are more than 100 types of cancer as skin cancer, prostate cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer. There symptoms vary depending on type.
Causes of Cancer
There are many causes of cancer and here are the following
In addition to smoking, risk factors for cancer include:
- heavy alcohol consumption
- excess body weight
- physical inactivity
- poor nutrition
For example, over 480,000 people die in the U.S. each year from smoking cigarettes, according to data reported in 2014.
Methods of Treatment
There are many types of treatments that are used and it depends upon which type of cancer do you have and how much advance it is.
- Radiation Therapy
- Immunotherapy to Treat Cancer
- Targeted Therapy
- Hormone Therapy
- Stem Cell Transplant
- Precision Medicine
- Robotics Cancer Treatment
Robotics Cancer Treatment
As the title refers that robot is performing the operation but in real it doesn’t like that. Instead it refers to when surgeons direct the robotic tools during the surgery. Robotics surgery system use more than one robotic arm that control remotely by surgeons. One robot arm has a laparoscope. Other arm of the robot hold smaller surgical instrument that can fit into an inch long incision. That robot provides the surgeon three dimensional view of the tumor. Its just like that of the joy stick of the video game controlling each arm which copy the motions of the wrist and hand providing dexterity.
In 1985, the first document featuring robotic assisted surgical procedure was used. When the first puma 560 robotic surgical arm was used in neuro surgical biopsy.
In 2000, the da vinci surgery system becoming the first robotic system approved by FDA for general laparoscopic surgery. This was the first time when the FDA approved a system of surgical instruments and camera utensils. Its predecessors rely on the use of many surgical assistance and endoscopes to perform surgery. The da vincy robotic surgery system allow the surgeon to see the three dimensional view to operate the area with high resolution.
It is so advanced technique that not available in all hospitals of UK.
Prostate Treatment with Robotics
It is a disease in which cancerous cells form in the tissues of prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system.
SMART(Samadi Modified Advanced Robotic Technique) is an advanced prostate cancer surgery treatment that quickly reduces blood loss, pain, hospital stay, recovery time and the side effects of other types of prostate cancer treatments. The SMART Technique is also known as bloodless prostate surgery.
As in this technique there is no need to open the endopelvic fascia or cutting the dorsal vein complex. This results in no sutures and less damage to the neurovascular bundle.
The da Vinci robotic prostate cancer surgery system is able to provide superior clinical prostate cancer treatment results when compared to non-robotic traditional and scope-assisted procedures.
As this procedure provides us the following advantages.
- Reduced Risk of Complications With Robotic Prostate Surgery
- Quicker Recovery Period After Robotic Prostate Surgery
- Minimal Scarring After Robotic Prostate Cancer Surgery
Cyberknife Robotics for Cranial Tumors
The CyberKnife is a frameless robotic radiosurgery system used for the treatment of malignant and benign tumours, and other medical conditions.
In this method radio therapy treatement is used with the intention of targeting the cancerous cells more precisely and more accurately than standard radiotherapy.
That cyber knife consists of two elements that are as follows.
- Accelerator from which radiations are produced
- Robotic arm which allows the energy to direct it to any part of the body from any direction.
To find the success rate and the complications offered by cyberknife robotic radio surgery a research was planned at department of cyberknife robotic radio surgery at the jinnah post graduate medical center (JPMC) Karachi, which is the only place in the country where it is offered free of cost and also the only place where the facilities are present according to the need.
Results of research
Initially, 260 patients were selected, but 9(3.5%) were lost, and the final sample size was 251(96.5%). There were 128(50.9%) adult males and 108(43%) adult females in addition to 15(5.9%) children. The overall net age was 47±14.5 years (range: 3.5-84 years).
Clinicall successful results were as seen in 225(90%) patients, while 8(3%) showed no radical change in symptoms and 18(7%) patients’ awaited for the results.. Seven (3%) patients died after treatment; 3(1.2%) of them were at risk of high-grade glioma with repetition ot its occurrence and 0.3 % of it was at the risk of metastasis.
Improvement from radiology was noted in 218(87%) patients, stable disease in 138(55%) and 80(32%) cases showed more than 30% lowering in size after 6-12 months of follow-up. Only 5(2%) cases showed increase in size within 3-month interval due to post-radiation oedema. Acute transient post-radiation changes were seen in 25(10%) patients, sub-acute changes in 4(1.59%) and 1(0.3%) patient showed radionecrosis after 9-month interval. Follow-up MRI of 28(11%) patients were treated in the last 3 months of the study was awaited.
World health organization estimated that cancer is a major cause of death and 7.6 million people died because of it last year, so in order to reduce these numbers scientists are continuously trying to derive new methods for the treatement and one of it is nanorobotics.
Nano robotics is a technique dealing with miniscule things at moleculer level. These are extremely small electrochemical systems that are designed to perform a specific task with great accuracy and precision. This allows the usage of drugs in nano size to minimize its affects on the other body cells and the operation is performed only on the affected cells
Properties of nano robots
- They respond to acoustic signals and able to two way communication
- They are treated as cylinders one micrometer in length and 0.5 micrometer in diameter
- There structure has two spaces one is interior and other is exterior
- They consist of sensor elements nano chips containers and motors
- They work in response to environment stimuli
Nano robot architecture
They consist of chemical sensors and by using which they receive response from the body and also respond to the environmental stimuli, similarly they also respond to the change in ph as well. They consist of actuator as electromagnetic, electrostatic and electrothermal as well energy supply as from the series of hot and cold conductors attached with it causes the production of continuous energy for its proper working
- This technique helps the patient to get rid of disease completely.
- Due to its small size it also helps in the easily flow without blocking the capillary flow.
- It is inexpensive.
- As it attack only on the cancerous part so it is a less painful method.
- It is easily disposable.
As the development of robotics method provides the human a lot of methods to treat that fatal disease and it also helps in the reduction of the people’s number who got affected by it but still this method is very complicated as the design of the machine is itself very difficult to design. It is also not available even in al hospitals of UK so not every can avail this facility. Also its initial cost is very high and its electrical system can create stray fields whi9ch can affect the human body so with a lot of advantages it has some drawbacks as well.
- R.Hariharan, J.Manohar, ”Nanorobotics As Medicament” IEEE 2010
- M.Venkatesan, B.Jolad “Nanorobots in cancer treatments”IEEE 2010
- Abhijeet Kapse ”Fight with cancer using nanorobots ”
- “New paradigm for tumor theranostic methodology using bacteria based microrobots” Nature.com. Nature publishing group, n.b.web.18 feb 2014
- www.cancerresearch UK.org / about cancer
- Susan Mayor ”Robotics surgery for prostate cancer” Published on 27 July 2016
- Brian Davies “Robotics Surgery a personal view of the past, present and future” published in January 1, 2015
- David Jayne, ALessio Pigazzi, Helen Marshall”Effect of robotic assisted vs conventional laparascopic surgery” published in 24 October 2017