The Public administration field focuses on public administration as a process. Historically and conventionally it has been primarily concerned with problems of how to apply or effect law faithfully, honestly economically and efficiently. The process of public administration consists of actions involved in intent of government. It is continuously active business part of government carrying out the law made by legislative bodies and interpreted by courts through process of organization and management and its function varies accordingly to form of government as it has been experienced that in democratic states aspiration of masses are being considered while in autocratic system its national interest is being preferred over inspiration of masses. It doesn’t mean that demands of the people are being totally neglected. So here we would see how it works in democratic state and especially here we will discuss the role, functions, issues and challenges and performance of Pakistan in the perspective of it.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policies. Today it is often regarded as including also some responsibility for determining policies and programs of governments. Specifically, it is the planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and controlling of government operations. It is a feature of all nations, whatever their system of government. Within nations it is practiced at the central, intermediate, and local levels. Indeed, the relationships between different levels of government within a single nation constitute a growing problem of it.
In most of world establishment of highly trained administrative, executive, or directive classes has made it a distinct profession. The body of public administrators is usually called civil service. In United States and few other countries, the elitist class connotation traditionally attached to the civil service has been either consciously abandoned or avoided; with the result that professional recognition has come slowly and only partially.
The process of public administration consist of action involved in effecting the intent of desire of state it is thus the continuously active business part of government concerned with carried out the law as made by legislative bodies and ratified by administration . Administrative question are not political questions it has to do only deal with the implementation of policies rather state masses will. There are three challenges that have emerged as a consequence of global trends to wand democratization, privatization and internationalization of the world economy. The civil service of Pakistan is being confronted with how to combat the challenges. The social consequence of it will be great because of effect in it will do more harm to the public but in private administration this will be less even if any harm is done by it will be of less significance and their ma be negligible .
It has certain distinctive features which differentiate it from others administration it is for more closely tied up with constitution and the formal law of a country (Amna Imam, 2014)
It is the implementation of government policies also in academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepare civil servants working in the public sector as field of inquiry with a divers scope its fundamental goal is to advance management and policies so that government can function some of the various definitions which have been offered for term or management of public program ,translation of politic into reality and study of the government decision making analysis of policies themselves , various input that have produced them and inputs necessary to produce alternative policies .It is centrally concerned with organization of government policies and program as well as behavior of officials formally responsible for their conduct many un elected public servants can be considered to be public administrator including heads of each level .(Niazi L.k.A,2018)
Early systems, It has ancient origins .In antiquity Egyptians and Greeks organized public affairs by office, and principal officeholders were regarded as being principally responsible for administering justice, maintaining law and order, and providing plenty.
Public administration in Democratic State
In democratic state administration is being done for the welfare of masses when the policies are being made the demands of people are reconsidered and that would only possible if state have solid it on contrary to this Dictatorship or authoritarian regime policies are not people oriented but that does not mean that aspiration of people being totally rejected they mainly focus on the national interest and when talk about authoritarian regime then national interest comes first where sometimes the aspirations of the people can be partially neglected rather totally. There is no doubt that it was present before democracy introduced and meanwhile it raised standard of the it because here in democracy we are not being subjected by God(Divine Theory) rather by people and for sure if you want to remain in power then for sure you have to serve in the best interest of people. In democracy everyone is accountable be it ruler of beau crate even the every personal working the at any designation are accountable to the System made under the best it. Moreover structural rigidity should be there in order to maintain merit of policy makers. And as much there will be meritocracy so much will be comfort ability of the public. And this structural rigidity makes the system more strengthen.
Modern Public Administration Issues and Challenges
A modern public administrator in any country has to grapple with multifarious issues and face multiple challenges which are in addition to the traditional challenges of delivering quality service in given time and with limited resources. I have identified issues which you can remember in form of an acronym badstep. This acronym is composed of first letter of following respective seven issues of a public administrator as Behavior, Attitudes, Demographics, Society, Technology, Economy and Politics. Let me explain . Technology has been with us for centuries but its rapid speed and widening coverage,deepening impact poses threats as well as offer tremendous opportunities for modern public servants. On the demand side public is forcing them to quicken pace of decision making and adopt it as a tool of service delivery and grievance redress. They demand comprehensive E-governance facilities such as online tax payement, availability of information on public service recruitment, public procurement of goods and services etc . There are attitudinal changes in the citizens who are becoming an increasingly complex ,diverse population, with shifting and contradicting expectations. They expect that government agencies will provide a level of service comparable to that of private sector. Modernization, which always accompanies industrialization, has brought fundamental changes in attitudes and behavior of citizens all over world. Once set in motion, modernization becomes a self-reinforcing process, penetrating all aspects of life and brings multidimensional changes in any society. Four types of behavioral changes in different stakeholders are putting pressures, directly as well as indirectly, on a civil servant in every country. Thanks to globalization, societies are transforming in multiple ways and at rapid speed. These developments now demand modern style of governance which is open, participatory and responsive, executed through a highly decentralized governance structures with maximum autonomy. Quick response to complaints and their timely redress, people friendly processes, ethical behavior, analytical prowess, change management, use of technology, emotional stability etc., are now name of the game. Almost all developing countries are passing through most crucial phase of their demographic transition. While rate of child births is gradually falling in almost all countries due to long term changes in social values and growing prosperity, death rates are falling even more rapidly because of better health facilities. Consequently, global population is growing at unsustainable rate, creating an aging bulge in the developed countries; however, in the developing countries, there is not only youth bulge but also aging bulge. Age-old pursuit of growth for sake of growth ultimately resulted in certain unintended but inevitable consequences, particularly rising poverty gap within every country and dismal record of their social and human development in the developing countries. Consequently, concept of equating economic growth with GDP growth has been replaced by concept of all inclusive, socially just and environmentally sustainable development with aim of improving quality of life of the people From inception of Pakistan as a state ,its planners focused on the it as it is the core cause of any welfare state and it is colonial legacy of British as to meet needs of masses but here In case of Pakistan we as guardian of state failed to establish it, state come into being in the name of Islam but at current our stake holders badly failed to maintain good administration.
Public Administration issues in Pakistan
Since the inception of Pakistan , Bureaucracy has suffered a slow institutional decline, most notable factor in this process has been sharped decline in the thoughtful caliber of the civil servants. The structure of the civil service is not formal one that take the intellectual class to the civil service but contrary to this the cramming system of civil exams brings the book worms students to the upper bureaucratic structure and most of the time these officers go for their personal interest rather than the interest of the public and then at the end public suffers a lot just due to the structure. And moreover to this our politician use bureaucracy as their personal service men and which make the bureaucracy controversial and they make them political. And all their affiliations with politicians make their role questionable. From the inception of the Pakistan we have faced many martial laws those badly hindered (Amna Imam, 2014) the development of Pakistan no doubt the core cause of these were the incompetency of our rulers. Military is strong and well-structured with the colonial legacy .and the role of Army as an institution become essential when state is born with the domestic and international problems states as an institutional is supreme enough that it involve its interest in the political parties and works for their vested rather those directly effect to the people a state is born with a number of problems in every field and more worse it the scourge of incompetency of ruling class then role of military becomes effective there is huge difference between the understanding of the military and civilian one , here in case of military, military officials has to study different aspects and diverse perspectives with acquiring the new skills and for the promotion. They has to pass the exams so when an institution be it a military or other one has tough selection criteria with a departmental test promotion is no doubt will be more formal organized rather the other one those are military focused to come in power be it legal or illegal way . Military as institution has a proper formal structure hierarchal structure in comparison to the ruling class that creates distinction between the military and ruling class so here in Pakistan military has an influential rule in Pakistan. At the time of independence there were three type of classes be it Landlord, military official and Bureaucracy but after that Army and bureaucracy has overdeveloped with respect to the Ruling class .The military bureaucratic oligarchies has become the cause of political intervention in Pakistan as we see in case of Iskander Mirza, a powerful member of the military, bureaucratic oligarchy is being elected as the first president of the Pakistan under the first constitution of Pakistan. So yes military has a bureaucratic oligarchy in Pakistan as it has developed more than other two classes of Pakistan and it can influence the political activities of ruling class.
Challenges in Public Administration in Pakistan
The core problem in implementing the it in Pakistan is that the absences of transparency because there is no formal structure where a ruler can be made accountable for its deeds when he was in power .as other is not properly defined rules and structure ruler mostly tries to make money rather to serve the people so still there is no concept of the transparency then it would not be able to work in the best interest of the people . There is a dire need of transparency in the selection of the bureaucracy as in future it is going to implement the policies made by the legislative bodies and ratified by the government still we lack the transparency system the it would not be able to work in the best interest of the people .There is a need of transparency in the every institution of the Pakistan there should be a selection n merit rather relations still in the absence of the meritocracy there will be no constructive rule of the administration in society and as much will be the merit there will be enough administration. Three challenges that have emerged in the form of globalization are democratization, privatization and internationalism of the world economy. The civil services are confronted with how to combat these challenges. The major challenge is hot to adopt and operate in a quasi-democratic system. Civil service reflects the continuity of policies irrespective of who is ruling. They should be given their education, training, social background, they can play a vital role in strengthening democratic institutions. For the past two decades, conflict among the political leadership has polarized the society. This polarization has affected almost all segments of civil society. The challenge for the civil services as an institution .The major and effective reason in regard for the poor it is the interference with administrative tasks by the political elite. And they try to do corruption and they want civil servants to help them in getting kickbacks in different manners. And this Negative influence on the bureaucracy and their unwillingness to take risks involved in any rhetoric. Parliament may exercise a negative influence over the bureaucracy. And another main reason is the instability of political system. When we have an overlook to history of Pakistan we see a lot of instability especially in exercising democracy. And due to this instability the continuity of policies is also much difficult to exercise.
Development administration was inaugurated in the 1950’s as a modernization paradigm to develop third world along capitalist lines. Bureaucratic rationality, battery of the administration reform tools, and the magic wand of management science. it was to be state-led development. By the late 60’s development started showing signs of fatigue and failure. The modernization drive failed to remove poverty and social inequity. And if Pakistan has to come to list of those states which are welfare states and have good public administration then Pakistan has to work hard in the field of it and will have to work on structure of the administrative system. And will have to follow the Weberian conceptualization of hierarchical public administration and this will be a good option for Pakistan to recover its bad administration.
- Amna Imam, E. A. (2014, 2 20). Centre for Public Policy & Governance. Retrieved from http://cppg.fccollege.edu.pk/democracy-and-public-administration-in-pakistan/
- I, A. (2016, may 10). Society and public administration. The Nation
- Khan, Sultan, Public Administration with special reference to Pakistan