- Alice Hills(2009) the possibility of transnational policing, Policing and Society: An International Journal of Research and Policy, 19:3, 300-317, DOI: 10.1080/10439460902871363
- Ben Bowling (2009), Transnational Policing: The Globalization Thesis, a Typology, and a Research Advance Access Publication: 21 April 2009Policing, Volume 3, Number 2, pp.149– 160doi:10.1093/police/pap001
- Stan Gilmour and Robert France (2011) local policing and transnational organized crime, International Review of Law, Computers & Technology, 25:1-2, 17-26, DOI:10.1080/13600869.2011.594644
- Clive Harfield, (2008) the organization of ‘organized crime policing’ and its international context the British Society of Criminology. www.sage publications.com ISSN 1748–8958;Vol: 8(4): 483– 507DOI: 10.1177/1748895808096472
This paper is an article review on How policing is organized depending on perceptions of what needs to be policed the aim of this paper is to discuss, evaluate and criticize articles written on transnational policing in fighting organized crime, challenges in implementing transnational policing and local policing in fighting transnational crime. The transnational offences may include organized crimes such as terrorism, human trafficking, human smuggling, and drug trafficking etc. Those crimes are the most challenging types of crimes even they have economically and politically destruction to every country. So, one country and agency only cannot to prevent its risk from society as well as from country without collaboration and co-ordination of multilateral agency of criminal justice components. The police role is very crucial to control and prevent transnational organized crime which across the national borders by supporting the sub-state and supranational policing. For this solution the effective police force, having good police ethic, commitment of the local and supranational state creation of strong national security policing has crucial role as well as building strong transnational policing is the remedies to reduce the commission of organized crime across the existing borders. CLIVE HARFIELD, Stan Gilmour, and Robert France, Alice Hills, Bon en Bowling argued and write article related with transnational policing, local policing, globalization effect on transnational policing and possibility of transnational policing. Transnational organized crime policing has been passing through different debates on how transnational policing be supposed to implement, governed, where the jurisdiction shall lay, how shall the law is integrated with local criminal laws and how it should be organized, which policing model is important raised in your own way by those authors The article organized into four parts introduction part, summary of articles, analysis of review, and conclusion with a recommendation.
Analysis of the review
1. The possibility of transnational policing
The Alice Hills (2009), method of analysis is explanatory case study of transnational policing limitations based on the predominance of sub-state practice over international standards. Her objective is assessing the possibility of developing transnational policing in the light of UN peacekeeping operations. Author argues that interaction across national frontiers in networks with a high degree of mutual dependence and obligation has led to a self-perception of Tran’s nationality among a growing number of actors, institutions and agreements. Author some critical comments on its form and substance in the introductory chapter, the author acknowledged others work provides a brief review of the literature on systematic attention in edited crafting transnational policing the perception of the author occupational commonality are nowadays reinforced by the widely shared conviction that police forces must co-operate if they are to respond effectively to the crime and insecurity facilitated by globalization. Various forms of bilateral, multilateral and international co-operation are encouraged by intergovernmental organizations. Author concludes that Current modes of transnational policing are not primarily intended as a means for ensuring effective policing.
Critics of the article
- Alice hills does not take into consideration underdeveloped countries rather than developed countries and even for developed countries it does not put forms of standardized of pre-deployment training.
- Hills were emphasis on the possibility of transnational policing, effectiveness policing under the legislation of United Nation policing standard only. Not including other experiences for recruitment, training and operational deployment.
- Hills debate on the internationalization of policing has too crystallized across the western
2. Transnational Policing: The Globalization Thesis, a Typology
Ben Bowling (2009), method of analysis is explores all aspects of policing in relation to economically, politically, technologically, socially interconnected and socio-spatial typology. The author objective is exploring the dimensions of transnational policing based on a socio-spatial typology, the globalization delineated in relation to policing in the local, national, regional, international and global spheres. perception of the author, Each sphere of governance above the nation state is creating an drive for the transformation of policing structures will undergo transformation as the world becomes more economically, politically, technologically and socially interconnected. The globalization changes are likely to occur in the working lives of police officers from the local community constables to the liaison officers posted around the world. The author concludes that enormous challenges presented by the shifting nature of policing to be based on a solid normative and legal framework and an evidence base to guide practice, a major programme of research are needed. This will require advanced scholarship in the fields of criminology and criminal justice, police studies, criminal law, legal philosophy and public international law to get to grips with the difficult questions of law, governance and regulation in the transnational sphere.
- The author views do not see in human rights perspective and effective policing force. Author views policing on neo – liberalism economy, political, technologically, socially interconnected and local, national, regional and international dimension. Though knowledge, capacity and capability, human right perspectives are ignored by his view.
- The abstract of the article is does not clear regarding to methodology
- The authors does not incorporate how to affect globalization on local policing system
3. Local policing and transnational organized crime
Stan Gilmour and Robert (2011), method of analysis was explanation the case study from in different sub-state policing perspectives with UN standard policing. Objective of the author was discusses problems associated with a crime management model that is underpinned by the geographical reach of the investigating agencies, and the merits of different models of policing that work to counter transnational organized crime. Perception of the author was Policing with tackling crime at an inter-force, national and international level had always made use of intelligence information. Policing at a local level had more often relied on a reactive approach to its work – waiting for an incident to occur, and then responding to it. Author conclude that by underpinning the decision-making process with Intelligent Problem Solving based on the concept of threat and harm, rather than geography, we provide a vision for policing– one that fits comfortably alongside the national drive to modernize the way police officers work by giving them greater flexibility to address the needs and expectations of the public Clearly, specialist and other scare resources cannot be expected to contribute to every problem that arises – but where the threat or harm justify it (regardless of the perceived seriousness of the offending or the place where it occurs) they have an important role to play in dealing with the local problems of Transnational Organized Crime.
- local policing and transnational organized crime, policing at a local level had more often relied on a reactive approach to its work that means waiting for an incident to occur, and then responding it but not concerned with proactive approach to its work and preventing crime before it happens to save the society from the harm.
- does not incorporate other policing model and it focuses only the three models in relation to organized crime over look models of policing that is intelligence-led policing, problem-solving policing and goal-oriented policing to counter transnational organized crime.
4. The organization of organized crime policing and its international context
CLIVE HARFIELD (2008), Method of analysis was Descriptive level a sample of the developments in the organizational practicalities of organized crime policing and comprehensive level of policing. Objective of author was discussing the problems associated with a crime management model that is underpinned by the geographical reach of the investigating agencies, and the merits of different models of policing that work to counter transnational organized crime. Perception of the author organization of organized crime policing should be viewed holistically, so as to set police organizational infrastructure into the context of the organization of organized crime policing in its widest sense goes beyond investigation, leading to prosecution and enforcement of the criminal law. Prevention of crime is also part of the repertoire in ‘policing’ criminal behavior. author view on Agreements that is multilateral and bilateral, common understanding both criminal law and transnational crimes, public legitimacy and role of other criminal justice actors like EU, international investigator; NGO, Europol’s annual Organized Crime Threat Assessment (OCTA) and a multi-layered agency liaison community for organization of organized crime policing. Author conclude that the next decade needs, arguably, to be characterized by creative (though evidence-influenced) conceptualizations of the threat and what is threatened in order better to understand how organized crime will feed off the variant state-types now being identified. This in turn will inform the organization of policing and its governance. The state context within which organized crime must be understood is changing. The implication of not recognizing the changing context is that the organization of organized crime policing will only ever be reactive and defensive, and not necessarily focused on the most effective interventions
- Clive Hadfield it does not put a clear central authority or any forms of international agreement between requesting and requested state regarding to reduce organized crime.
- In the organization of ‘organized crime policing’ and its international context, he doesn’t put a clear cut issues about the jurisdiction of organized crime and who have ultimate decision-making process. In the organization of ‘organized crime policing’ and its international context he explained that the organization of organized crime policing is depend on European Criminal Intelligence Model (ECIM) without considering the experiences of other countries.
Significant success factors in policing transnational organized crime (TOC). Some of the key issues with international policing ventures are the difference in policing capabilities, powers and resources between states. The successful targeting of policing transnational organized crime (TOC) is predicated on the need for international cooperation, capacity building, effective and efficient collection, analysis and dissemination of intelligence amongst international partner agencies and increased compatibility of national legal frameworks and criminal justice systems. The effectively and efficiently to minimize the risk of transnational organized crime it is better to having professionally trained and skill full police with communication skills, knowledge about the nature of transnational organized crime, and criminal law of the country. Also the motivation of the local, national, regional, and international active participation and involvement police, as well as the security sector agencies, are very important for the decrease of the rises transnational organized crime that has been committed within countries. The paper also makes recommendations on how the police role in prevention of organized crime, various government organizations all over the world have issued a strong endorsement of crucial aspects in the fight against transnational organized crime, of the way this approach should be structured and of the idea that many transnational organized crime problems are shared problems, there is relatively little operational cooperation on multilateral level apart from widespread information exchange. The reasons for this include national mandates and the national focus of the most prominent actors, differing threat perceptions, and the minimal implementation obligation issuing from global agreements. Through greater cooperation and collaboration between law enforcement agencies, whole of government approaches can be applied to TOC, regardless of where occurs.
New crime threats in an increasingly interdependent security environment require novel law enforcement strategies. A critical feature of such strategies is likely to be much denser and more intimate networks of cooperation between the law enforcement regimes of particular states. The effectively and efficiently to minimize the risk of transnational organized crime it is better to having professionally trained and skill full police with communication skills, knowledge about the nature of transnational organized crime, and criminal law of the country. Also the motivation of the local, national, regional and international active participation and involvement police as well as the security sector agencies are very important for the decrease of the rises transnational organized crime that has been committed within countries. The newfound strength that organized crime has gained through international alliances is also its weakness. Networks of these enterprises are brutal, but fragile. Though groups may exploit gaps in legislation and enforcement abroad, they can also be severely weakened when law enforcement and prosecutors in many nations coordinate their efforts and strategies. If united in common cause, governments can prevail against criminal groups to protect democracy, free markets, and the public. The paper also makes recommendations on how the police role in prevention of organized crime. Better skilled personnel are only part of the solution to addressing increased asymmetrical threats. The better integration of modern technology, in compliance with international and national criminal justice and human rights laws, norms and standards, will also be needed.