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Self-efficacy And Classroom Management Style

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A teacher belief in his/her ability to achieve goals is called teacher self-efficacy. Teachers’ self-efficacy model was developed based on a widespread review of the literature by Tschannen-Moran et al. (1998). Four major sources that have major influences on efficacy beliefs are included and each contribute to both the investigation of the teaching task and to self-perceptions of teaching competence.

Mastery Experiences, one of the most powerful sources, can be occurred when people challenge to do something and are successful. People believe more that they will be able to do something new if it is similar to something they have already done well. So, they are the most efficient way to increase self-efficacy. The second factor influencing self-efficacy is Modeling and Vicarious Experiences. Observation of the successes and failures of other people who are like to one’s self affects self-perceptions of efficacy through two processes. First, it gives knowledge. Second, people partly evaluate their proficiencies using social comparisons. We often talk people into believing that they have the capacity to achieve what they want to accomplish. It is Verbal Persuasion. It may involve a pep talk or detailed performance comment from a supervisor or a colleague (Bandura, 1994). Physiological and Emotional Cues: The degree of emotional and physiological arousal that a person experiences in a teaching situation (either of anxiety or excitement) adds to self-perceptions of teaching competences. Self-efficacy is self-perception of competence. It is not actual level of competence (Bandura, 1977, cited in Tschannen-Moran et al., 1998).

The model has two dimensions (analyzing the teaching task and its context, and self-perceptions of teaching competence) that are consistent with two factors of general teaching efficacy (GTE) and personal teaching efficacy (PTE). Teacher efficacy is context-specific. The factors such as; the assessment of students’ abilities, instructional strategies, resources provided by school, and physical condition of teaching environment are included in the analyzing of teaching task. Principal support, collegial support, and school climate are contextual factors. In addition, Bandura’s (1994) four sources affect these two dimensions.

Classroom Management Styles

The teachers’ ability to cooperatively manage time, space, resources, students’ roles and behaviors to provides a climate that encourages learning is classroom management (Alberto and Troutman, 1986). There are a large number of management styles that teachers reveal. In this study, the classroom management style was based on three types of noninterventionist, interactionist and interventionist by Wolfgang and Glickman (1980).

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Wolfgang and Glickman (1980) took various psychological interpretations of child development and categorized them into three basic beliefs:

  1. An inner unfolding of potential make the child develop
  2. A result of external conditions make the child develop
  3. The interaction of inner and outer forces make the child develop.

According to Wolfgang and Glickman (1980), the first one points out that the child has an inner potential that need to look for its appearance in real world to develop. Any such inner potential is rejected to admit by the second one. It just emphasizes the development of the human organisms as the cause of the outer environment in its unusual way. Third item highlights that the interaction of inner potential of an individual and external forces of the environment shapes the child.

Using these descriptions of social learning, three schools of psychological thought (the Noninterventionist, the Interventionist, and the Interactionist) were defined by Wolfgang and Glickman (1980). The Noninterventionist classroom management model is commonly referred to as humanistic or student-centered and it is based on a philosophical and psychological belief system. The Interactionalist models of classroom management are based on both behavior and feelings. The Interventionist systems of classroom management are based on the basic tenets of behavioral psychology (Levin and Nolan, 1991).

Teacher Self-Efficacy

Teacher self-efficacy is the teacher’s belief in his or her ability to bring about desired outcomes in students. Teacher self-efficacy consists of two concepts: personal teaching efficacy and general teaching efficacy. Personal teaching efficacy is defined as self-evaluation of one’s ability to successfully bring about positive changes in students’ behaviour in the classroom. General teaching efficacy is defined as teacher’s belief in his or her ability to manage the classroom and to create teaching-learning process effectively regardless of external factors such as home environment and family background. In this study, it will be determined by the mean values of teachers’ response to self-efficacy items in the questionnaire.

Classroom management Style

Classroom management style is defined as the styles that the teachers use to effectively support and facilitate academic, behavioural, social-emotional, and motivational outcomes of students. In this study, the most common type of teachers’ classroom management style will be determined by the mean values of the selected teacher responses to the items of classroom management style (noninterventionist, interactionist and interventionist).

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Self-efficacy And Classroom Management Style. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved September 25, 2023, from
“Self-efficacy And Classroom Management Style.” Edubirdie, 17 Feb. 2022,
Self-efficacy And Classroom Management Style. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 25 Sept. 2023].
Self-efficacy And Classroom Management Style [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 17 [cited 2023 Sept 25]. Available from:
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