During the past decades there have been many requests to different institutions to acquire access to statistics reports related to female sexual abuse. It is an undeniable fact that violence has a major impact in hundred females lives . However, that kind of violence it comes in different ways and forms, from domestic violence to marital rape. The consequences have a vital role in females lives, but also the violent of their fundamental human rights. Nevertheless, it ensures the pain that they are called to live with as well as stigma . The aim of this systematic review is to highlight the increased percentages of sexual assault which remains dramatically underreported specifically in Greece . Furthermore, to inform that even today they still remain in vulnerable position. As a result, they feel the need to be prevented from any form of sexual abuse or sexual harassment.
Sexual Abuse and Social Isolation
Violence against women is one of the most serious forms of human rights violation agains the gender. According to Stevens (1997), she described sexual abuse as “a mark of disgrace”. Stevens mentioned that some of the symptoms of stigmatization are such as low self – esteem, false – self behavior, and possibly negative feelings about one’s sexual orientation. Psychologists have analysed sexual abuse in successive stages, but they have a sequel. A lot of psychologist have researched the experiences of women who are related to sexual abuse, most of them include in their study the following negative occurrences : obscene phone calls, sexual teasing on the road, rape , sexual abuse of young girls ,seduction and rape by a friend or a person in work in the same environment . According across all rape cases and statistics, in most of the cases the rapists were not strangers, but family members, friends , neighbours. As claimed by, Hawkins ( 2003), “women who stay with the abuse partner because they believe he will change are revictimized until they learn to escape and concentrate on surviral”. These women fail to seek help or accepted it when offered. When it comes to sexual intercourse, sometimes is pleasant and sometimes upleasant. So the victim tends to hope for the pleasant moments which are the only moments she can remember . This leads the victim to endure also the unpleasant sexual experiences that she experiences with her partner and to become a victim, by enhancing the pleasure she sometimes receives from sexual intercourse. Concerning marital rape, this is treated differently in different societies and legal systems. In many countries there is a social perception that there is no rape within the marriage, as sexual intercourse is a duty under the marriage contract. On the other hand, the judicial system, contributes to the silence of rape victims because rape has the lowest rates additional to other crimes. However, the legal recognition of marital rape as a crime, is an important change which was long overdue; the use of relationship status to settle whether a crime has occurred shows the ways in which our attitudes vary depending on the relationship that the victim has with the offender.
The abused women show low self-esteem, underestimate their ability to do anything and any success, question their abilitie. They also believe in all myths about abuse, treat their home in the traditional way, believe in family unity and predetermined stereotypes of women’s role. Furthermore, they accept responsibility for the violent actions of their men, they feel guilty but deny the fear and anger they feel, believe that if the same behavior changes, their partner will change, and when that does not happen, he feels even worse and tries to control the environment of their family. They show passivity towards the social environment but have the power to face their personal environment in order to avoid greater abuse or killing. They have strong responses due to stress, with psychosomatic symptoms, depression, while using sex as a means to maintain their relationships. They usually leave their jobs, and even if they do not give up, they feel guilty about working because they think this is a factor in causing problems in their relationship. Many times they are forced by their partner’s behavior to abandon their careers, as they may be overly suspicious and jealous. Correspondingly, their income is usually managed by the man.
Frequent perception of society and, more importantly, of women who suffer abuse is that the man is the head of the home and they have to do everything they can to be happy and feel stronger than them. In addition, they do everything to avoid their anger, often suffer from physical and psychological inconveniences such as stress, fear, fatigue, back pain, headaches, insomnia, general discomfort, depression, restlessness, suspicion, hiding things from their comrades for not to fight and believe that no one will help them solve their problems other than themselves. The sense of loss of control causes psychological pain to the woman-victim of abuse. In order to reduce the negative feelings experiencing fear, anger, insecurity, despair, it can try to control various external factors to reduce the intensity of violence, suppress its anger, deny or minimize the abuse it suffers. Violence within love affair can happen to anyone. There is no gender, age, social and economic status, educational level, ethnicity or religion of any person. It does not matter whether it is a heterosexual or homosexual relationship. However, the overwhelming majority of victims are women who are abused by their comrades or their spouses. Gradually, the perpetrator, due to his dependence on his victim, his jealousy and his fear of unmasking the problem, succeeds in limiting and eliminating any social activity of the victim. Removing it from his family and friendly environment, he succeeds in increasing his dependence on her and putting it under his absolute control. Meanwhile, additional reasons affect under-reporting in cases such as domestic violence or sexual abuse. According to Artinopoulou, Koufouli, Michael,(2018) “Domestic and sexual violence are crimes with a high dark sigure, since the majority of these crimes remain unreported”. Specifically, victims find it very difficult to believe what they have experience or even take any form of action. The offender removes the right from the woman for any social contact or monitors her contacts with her friends, family and the wider social environment. This can occur even when the couple has separated and the violence extends beyond the woman, to other important persons, comrades or relatives.
Other forms of violence include direct or indirect monitoring of a woman’s personal life, destruction of her property, slander, influence or threats to her employers in order not to prevent or get rid of some work, deprivation of medical care, education and work, and deprivation of her liberty. The subject of the research will be the empirical investigation of the phenomenon of sexual abuse with women victims as well as their social environment. The feasibility of the survey is based on the identification of some key elements regarding the victims of sexual abuse, in particular women, and how they are dealt with by the competent bodies or their social environment. Therefore, the objectives of this research are summarized: the phenomenological approach to sexual abuse, and what is the effect on social exclusion .
- Stevens, L. (1997, February 1). Bringing Order to Chaos. Violence Against Women, 3(1) , 27-45. Retrieved from https://sci-hub.tw/https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1077801297003001003
- Hawkins, F. D. (2003). Violent Crime: Assesing Race & Ethnic Differences. Retrieved from https://books.google.gr/books?id=ZlHZpqo7rwEC&pg=PA183&lpg=PA183&dq=lenore+walker+1989&source=bl&ots=yAtqOK-iJU&sig=ACfU3U3pCQgoLgmKiai3DkFGZsuxNbO5dg&hl=el&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwilys-w4ZPhAhWewMQBHS_yDyUQ6AEwB3oECAUQAQ#v=onepage&q=lenore%20walker%201989&f=false
- Ferro, C., Cermele, J., & Saltzman, A. (2008). Current Perceptions of Marital Rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 23(6), 764–779 Retrieved from https://sci-hub.tw/https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0886260507313947
- Artinopoulou,V . Koufouli, A. Michael. I. (2018.) . Toward a victim – centered police response.