Situation With Autism In Pakistan
Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometers (340,509 square miles).
Pakistan has a semi industrialized economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector. Pakistan’s political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems including overpopulation, terrorism, poverty, illiteracy, and corruption.
There are four provinces in Pakistan. I live in Punjab Province. More than sixty languages are spoken in Pakistan, including a number of provincial languages. The constitution of Pakistan requires the state to provide free primary and secondary education. It is estimated that there are 3,193 technical and vocational institutions in Pakistan
Literacy rate of over-15 Pakistan population (1980–2015) by UNESCO Institute of Statistics
Education in Pakistan is divided into six main levels: nursery (preparatory classes); primary (grades one through five); middle (grades six through eight); matriculation (grades nine and ten, leading to the secondary certificate); intermediate (grades eleven and twelve, leading to a higher secondary certificate); and university programs leading to graduate and postgraduate degrees. There is a network of private schools that constitutes a parallel secondary education system based on a curriculum set and administered by the Cambridge International Examinations of the United Kingdom. Pakistan has 439 international schools. The literacy rate of the population is ~58 %. The rate of male literacy is ~70.2% while the rate of female literacy is 46.3%.
The Government of Pakistan recognizes its responsibility to educate the handicapped pupils first time in report of Commission on National Education, 1959( Education Policy 1972-1980). Today a considerable number of special education institutions are functioning under the control of the provincial governments for the children having different disabilities. Recently, the special education institutions run by the federal government are devolved to the respective provincial governments in the consequences of the implementation of 18th amendment in the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan. But Autism is not recognized, only children with major sensory disabilities are considered. For instance the children having difficulty in learning spellings or in reading are not considered as with autism rather they are going to mainstream schools where there is no adequate training to engage such special students.
Inclusion is derived from the word include which means to add up something to make part of a particular thing. For example to enroll a student in Northampton University to make him part of that particular University. Inclusive education is education that includes everyone either they are disabled or non-disabled in mainstream schools. The children with learning disabilities get the opportunity to learn with normal children, to play with them or work with them. On the other hand special schools are only for children with special needs. This is called exclusion or segregation as these schools are only for children with learning disabilities.
“Autism is a lifelong, developmental disability that affects how a person communicates with and relates to other people, and how they experience the world around them.”
Autism is also called Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), distortion in verbal communication, social interaction and repetitive behaviors.
There are 3 common types of Autism:
As I am working on special education in Pakistan, autism is not recognized in my country. There are only 4 common types of special children:
Beside these there is no other type related to autism. I worked in a primary school in my country I had a child with learning disabilities who was in same grade for last 4 years. We were not permitted to upgrade him and also do not have enough material or adequate training to teach that child as that was a mainstream school. So there was Inclusion but no desired results.
Cognition is an exceptionally complex, essential feature of human consciousness, yet not all aspects of cognition are consciously experienced. Cognition is sometimes defined as the mental process of knowing, including aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, and judgment. In simple terms, cognition means thinking. Cognitive psychology is the field of psychology dedicated to examining how people think. It attempts to explain how and why we think the way we do by studying the interactions among human thinking, emotion, creativity, language,...
Introduction The term “streetcorner psychiatrist” is from Teplin and Pruett (1992) who created the term to describe how police are the first to interact with the mentally ill since after deinstitutionalization, a dramatic shift in the mental health care system impacting the mentally ill. This study was published in the International Journal of Law and Psychiatry with data comprising of over 2,000 civilians. The mentally ill observed almost double the rate of being arrested compared to a non-ill person (Teplin...
Research studies in the past have examined the effect of music therapy on socio-emotional reciprocity in children with ASD (Kim, Wigram, & Gold, 2009; Srinivasan et al., 2015; Thompson, McFerran, & Gold, 2013; Venuti et al., 2017). In the first study of this section, Kim et al. (2009) investigated the characteristics of musical interaction that motivate interpersonal engagement between the therapist and the child. Ten children aged 3 to 5 were recruited from a psychiatric institution for examination in the...
Introduction Behavior is commonly characterized as a response to stimuli, regardless of whether internal or external, that changes an organism’s response to its habitat. Animals run, stay still, or counterstrike to predators; in response to external and internal stimuli birds construct complex and distinguished nests; plants show positive phototropism; and humans behave in both simple and complex ways depending on their keenness and culture. Behavior depends on the expression of the genotype of an organism, which takes happens inside a...
I. Introduction Autism is a condition that is present from birth or very early in development that affects essential human behaviours such as social interaction, the ability to communicate ideas and feelings, imagination, and the establishment of relationships with others. It usually has life-long effects on just how children acquire to be social beings, look after themselves, and to join in the community. Autism has grown into the most common neurological and developmental disorder detected in children nowadays. There is...
Autism is one of world’s most problematic disorder in the world. 1 in 40 children are more than likely to develop that disease because of brain abnormalities in the brain structure or function. Having autism doesn’t make you weird or unlike everyone else, it makes you unique in your own special way. In a lot of families, Autism gives off an impression of being an example of chemical imbalance or related disabilities further supporting the hypothesis that the confusion of...
For this summative piece, I have decided to look at ‘What is the impact on parents when having a child on the autism spectrum disorder.’ I believe this to be an important topic worth discussing due to the focus usually being on the child rather than their parents. This leaves the parents feeling neglected that they do not have the support. I think if they had support, they would not feel neglected therefore the feelings that come with feeling neglected...
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) defined as neurodevelopmental condition that has affect on 3 main domains: (1)Language delay, (2)social interaction and impairment communication, (3) repetitive actions (1). Also, autistic mostly associated with intellectual disability, gastrointestinal disorders, epilepsy and immune disorders. The word “autism” was first used by Kanner in 1943 (2). Etiology of ASD remaining unknown but genetic factor play a major role in ASD, with heritability estimates from twin studies as high as 90%(3). The prevalence of ASD without...
ASD prevails to be a very serious mental illness that results in the under-domestication of traits. It completely changes the life of the diagnosed and their families. Many educators lack the knowledge needed to properly accommodate for their studies with ASD. Furthermore, people in society also lack this information which leads to feelings of isolation for people with ASD and their families. But there are also people with over-domesticated traits. This is known as schizophrenia and this devastating mental illness...
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