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Smoking Cessation Support Activities Using Health Promotion

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Promotion is a health strategy of the 21st century, which based on the new health perspective that WHO (World Health Organization 1986) proposed in the 1986 Ottawa Charter and re-proposed in the Bangkok Charter of 2005. It is defined as “the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health”. In recent years, growth of the Internet has contributed access easy to get lots of information, currently Internet user in the UK shows 90% of people (Office for National Statistics [ONS] 2018). Additionally it has brought people to know the effect and harm of smoking for health. In the UK, smoking continues to be an essential issue for wellbeing.

Puclic Health England(PHE 2015) demonstrates that the smoking populace was 19% in 2014. Being contrast with 1980, it demonstrates the smoking populace that was 39% (GLS 2008). It appears the number of inhabitants in smoking has been dropped than the past, and still, at the end of the day it there are still a few issues in regards to medical issues. From the view purpose of the medicine viewpoints, clearly the smoking cause a few assortments of infection, for example, malignant growth, respiratory ailment, cardiovascular ailment. Moreover, it was accounted for that one of three smokers were murdered by smoking (Jha et al. 2006: Frieden and Bloomberg 2007). As unending obstructive aspirator malady (COPD), which is foreseen that the death rate will be expanded later on (WHO 2012). In like manner, the danger of smoking was called attention to that there are probably being to become depleted with cardiovascular illness (Rabe 2007).

To keep away from such wellbeing danger, intrigue has been coordinated to smoke and, yet a few things that are obstructions to smoke suspension are considered. It is realised that nicotine which is the substance of tobacco contains subordinate substances, which make it troublesome for nonsmokers to act (Health Line 2018). This can be the most obstruction when endeavouring to stop smoking. Be that as it may, there are extra conceivable causes. For instance, it is the earth encompassing them. This is basic in poor territories. Yet on the off chance that the encompassing smoking rate is high, it will be hard to turn awareness toward the smoking suspension. Moreover, the home condition can likewise be a factor affecting. On the off chance that guardians or guardians are smokers and they don’t go to class and don’t get sufficient wellbeing instruction. It is recommended that the effect on kids (Bell et al. 2010). This is called wellbeing imbalance (Bartley 2017), however, a significant number of them incorporate social factors, for example, poor families, poor regions and low instructive foundation (Bell et al. 2010).

Furthermore, one of the principal reasons why you can’t quit smoking is focused. Numerous causes, for example, working environment, work, human connection, tension about the future can be considered, however a few smokers use tobacco as stress adapting (Hajek et al. 2010). In this way, smoking end might be troublesome for the individuals who discover the impact of smoking. There may likewise be bodies of evidence in which social developments against smoking are additionally focusing on smokers. It might be that such social weight should make smokers feel disgrace (Bell et al. 2010) and might be pessimistic about smoking suspension. In any case, a great deal of mischief to smoking has been accounted for, and smoking and ought to be elevated to advance individuals’ wellbeing.

The social movement is to advance smoking and is likewise done in the UK, and lately endeavors to seek after more accommodation has been made as per the spread of the Internet. That is Soptober (PHE 2018) ‘Stoptober’ was established in 2012, which is the 28-day stop smoking challenge organised by Public Health England. There are over one and a half million people attempt to quit, additionally, it shows it more is likely to people are 5 times success (Brown and West, 2017). In this paper, among the Stoptober, we will look at the smoking and program everywhere throughout the nation to be held in October consistently. It is a relatively new approach, however, it should be examined adaptation and consideration about future prospects to be more widespread acceptance. The Stoptober was established by PHE in 2012, which have been carried out on every 1st of October. Participants use the Stoptober app, Facebook, twitter to remind every day and motivate them through the message, additionally people can have a face-to-face advice from experts (PHE).

As quitting options, Public Health England recommends e-cigarettes and nicotine gum as complementary products. Brown and West (2017) stated that quitting success rate over 19.8% for the first six months in 2017, enormously higher than the standard (15.7%) for the last ten years. As campaign background, the media budget is considered as the issue to solve. The 2017 Stoptober was calculated £2.1million, which increased from £390.000 in 2016. As a reason for this, PHE successfully used digital media last year only to reduce expenses, however the campaign occured population biased. Because of that, in 2017, they posted advertisements on media such as television and radio, so it took a lot of expenses. The advantage of the campaign is set beforehand for 28 days, and yet it is a place where unity can be obtained because it is done all over the country. Although it is said that those with empowerment from someone are more likely to succeed in behavior change (Lacina and Griffith 2017), Stoptober gets a sense of security that it is not challenging to smoke alone by a message from someone It may be done. This campaign also focuses on the psychological aspects of smokers. In particular, it is possible to evaluate the psychological change of participants using the stages of changes model (Prochaska and DiClemente 1983) It focus on contemplation stage which is one of the stages in the stages of change model and stimulating smokers’ awareness of smoking cessation by calling for a cessation of smoking through the media.

The limited quit-smoking campaign for 28 days has a clear time scheduling and it addresses all over the UK, so current smokers may feel a sense of unity. Health effect and economic effects are introduced as a merit of smoking cessation in PHE’s web page, and it is placed at shift to the next stage at the time of determination. Smoking cessation using the Internet is easy to feel convenience for those who are intending to quit smoking. At the time of Contemplation, when you care about the health and search the internet about smoking cessation, you can know the existence of this campaign by Stoptober’s posting. At the same time, this web page explains the disadvantage of smoking and the merits of smoking cessation, so it is possible that you might be working on the health conscious dominance. Regarding the health damage of smoking, there are many things you might be familiar with on television, the Internet, or school education, but by understanding it again, you may be able to face your own health. Also, as a merit of smoking cessation via the Internet, convenience such as using social media such as Facebook and participating in smoking cessation by downloading the smart phone application may be leading the participants to quit smoking.

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Currently, in the UK, spread of the Internet makes it easier to find information on smoking cessation, but smoking cessation, which is done focusing on this convenience, can be integrated into everyday life. With the conventional smoking program, you have to go to the regional health center or GP, and if you have to work, parenting or school, it will be hard to adjust the schedule. Difficult participation or continuation of Smoking cessation may have formed part of the obstruction of non-smoking behavior. However, as long as you are a web based, you can participate anywhere, so even those who have been hesitant to join can have interest. In addition, telephone consultation by experts is possible, and support is in place, which contributes to the maintenance and improvement of participant’s anxiety disorder and self-efficacy (Bandura 1977). Some smokers may have failed trying to quit smoking in the past. We can not ignore the problem of self stigma (Link 1987) which can recognize himself as a person with low social value by being given stigma, which leads to deterioration of self-esteem, escape from community, decrease in treatment behavior (Corrigan et al. 2006)

That is, stigma is required to deal with both public stigma and self stigma derived from it. For such people, advice from experts will have a dominant advantage. Moreover, there is a possibility that not only their own health hazard but also the harm of the surrounding passive smoking (WHO 2018) is concerned, and by the recommendation of the family and friends, it decides to quit smoking In such a case, we will go to Determination and prepare for challenging smoking cessation. At the time of Determination, although determination of behavior change is generally seen, what is important during this period will be the improvement of self-efficacy. However, Stoptober’s campaign is a massive one all over the country, and it is difficult to adapt it to individuals. In this regard, it will be considered as one of the problems of smoking cessation done on the Internet. Therefore, on the Stoptober’s Web page, there is a goal to shift to the next step from determination by suggesting the benefits of smoking cessation and health damage caused by smoking.

And the most important support is Active’s time which is challenging to quit smoking. Smoking cessation begins in October, but there is addiction in nicotine (Li 2018), and since withdrawal symptoms of nicotine are seen several days after starting smoking cessation (Johnson et al. 2012) It may be the major barrier to annoy us. According to Johnson et al (2012), psychological symptoms such as anxiety and irritation appear as withdrawal symptoms, but in order to alleviate such anxiety, as a reminder, from the organizer side every day as a reminder message notification is sent. Such encouragement will lead to motivation of participants to keep smoking cessation. Behaviour changes in behavior, encouragement and support from other companies has been shown to lead to behavioral preservation (Lacina and Griffith 2017), and this reminder is also expected to expect this effect. However, for this encouragement, clear evidence has not been verified as to whether encouraging e-mails contributed to the success of smoking cessation or smoking reduction in other Internet-based smoking cessation, but research by Munoz et al. (2006), It is known that artificial intelligence created messages tailored to individuality, thereby raising participants’ motivation.

Since Stoptober transmits simultaneous mail, it is difficult to create individual mail, but in order to obtain self-efficacy by adopting the system of artificial intelligence and acquiring the self-efficacy of the intervention method that captured the character and character of participants It may become. However, if there is something that hates a message everyday, that effect cannot expect. If it feels troublesome for messages periodically received, this Internet-based intervention is considered ineffective, but since clear and qualitative data of the participants are insufficient. We cannot make a study. Nicotine replacement therapy is recommended as a countermeasure against nicotine withdrawal symptoms other than encouragement by messages Electronic cigarettes are useful in terms of providing safe choices for smokers and providing permanent alternatives because harmful substances are about one-tenth that of cigarettes compared to cigarettes (Laugesen, 2010: Brown-Johnson et al. 2016). In addition, electronic cigarettes containing nicotine are useful as a substitute for cigarettes, because the nicotine concentration in the body is maintained even when replaced by cigarettes (Yan and D’Ruiz 2015).

However, even if it shifts from cigarette to electronic cigarette, harmful substances, are contained in mainstream smoke, nicotine dependence or nicotine withdrawal symptoms appears, and the possibility that the number used can be increased has been shown (Kawamura et al. 2018). Although PHE positively recommends substitute use of electronic cigarettes, there are few studies of the long-term harm of electronic cigarettes, and its usefulness is also questioned. In this Internet-based smoking cessation, treatment with individuality is difficult, there is a possibility that substitution therapy of e-cigarett may be dependent on nicotine, and it is necessary to set up an opportunity to educate on use and duration of use there will be. However, there are several limitations to this web-based smoking cessation method. One of them is the case that the effect is low for Pre-contemplation. Originally, for people who are not interested in smoking cessation, it is hard to think of searching for words such as ‘smoke-free’ on the Internet, and even if you advertise Stoptobber on television and radio, it is questionable whether it will affect them is there. However, as mentioned earlier, as a result of reducing advertising expenditure in 2016, participation in relatively poor people declined.

It is unknown which stage the people of this social poor belonged, but the publicity of television and radio will be known for some people. What is considered as a problem of smoking cessation is generally health damage, but at the same time health disparities (Bartley 2017) are also considered as a social problem. Furthermore, regarding social status and smoking rate (ONS 2012) is known to have high rates of quitting (about 33% for males and about 25% for females) when social status is low (Q 1). As a background for these, it is thought that wanting to receive adequate health education is a cause, and it may be considered that it is influenced by the surrounding smoking environment and the interest in smoking cessation is thin. The background of such health inequalities is that their social determinants of health are involved (GOV. UK 2017), but ignoring them as they are at the stage of pre-contemplation as it is. The health disparity has expanded. The relationship between smoking and income is also suggested (Press et al. 2018), and smoking issues need to be reviewed throughout the society from the perspective of widening economic disparity. This web-based Stoptober is regarded as important by ‘individuality’ that the smoker himself pushes the participation button, and in that respect it can be regarded as an individual’s health behavior, which is the philosophy of health promotion You will also need a nudge for smokers who are not interested in quitting at all. It is clear that they need to be interested in smoking cessation as Self stigma is known to have a negative impact on disease treatment, recovery and interpersonal relationship (Corrigan et al. 2006) As an alternative method, it may be necessary to intervene with health belief model (Becker 1974) to effectively consciousness them about their health.

However, for pre-contemplation people, the act of ‘encouraging smoking cessation’ itself may have a stigma embraced. In this case, public stigma for society (Bell et al. 2010) is considered rather than a self stigma for self. Even if you understand social health activities, deviation from pre-contemplation may be hard if you feel that you are aversion to yourself. However, it is possible that participants will be biased as well as the results of Stoptober in 2016, considering that they stop smoking campaigns, so also for intervention methods using the health belief model I will have to scrutinize it. Also, people who do not frequently use the Internet cannot do this quit smoking method. The penetration rate of the Internet is increasing year by year, and in the UK, about 90% or more people use the Internet. However, Internet usage rate over 75 years old is 44%, which are shorter than half of that of young people 90% (ONS 2018). Web-based non-smoking support can be easily participated by participants, but people who do not use the Internet, people who cannot use smart phones well, learning disabilities, people with mental illness may be unable to participate easily. Likewise, the action could not be continued during the period of smoking cessation: self stigma cannot be ignored even for those who failed smoking cessation (relapse), and efforts to affect their self-efficacy are clarified Not.

Overall, web based Sotoptobber may be very effective for contemplation. It is easy to participate using apps and SNS, and since it starts all over the country. There is sense of unity with other participants and may avoid loneliness during quitting. It is possible to create a poster to raise consciously health by raising individual’s health awareness as the object of health promotion consciously. However, some problems still remain. There are also concerns about advertising expenses problems and the campaigns themselves are not effective for some people who do not use the Internet, questions about the usefulness of the reminder effect during smoking cessation challenge, and health damage of alternative use. In order to develop health promotion through promotion of smoking cessation in the future, we need to think about reminders that can participate offline. But in doing so, obstacles will become problematic in securing the financial resources and the number of staff members. From the viewpoint of public health, it is indispensable to raise awareness of individual health, but it is also necessary to reconsider the laws for improving health and environmental service creation at the same time. Health benefits, social benefits, and economic benefits obtained by smoking can be planned in the future, so it is possible to reduce smoking rates by considering how to quit the web based on the future. In conclusion, this Stopober ‘s attempt is suitable for the modern Internet society, it also follows the idea of health promotion, such as the participants are willing to participate actively, and also the reputation is seen about the effect of the success rate of smoking cessation . However, in terms of using the Internet, there are aspects that are not suitable for elderly people or some people with low social status. In order to aim for future health promotion, it is necessary to construct an environment where many people can participate.

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Smoking Cessation Support Activities Using Health Promotion. (2022, Jun 16). Edubirdie. Retrieved September 24, 2023, from
“Smoking Cessation Support Activities Using Health Promotion.” Edubirdie, 16 Jun. 2022,
Smoking Cessation Support Activities Using Health Promotion. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 24 Sept. 2023].
Smoking Cessation Support Activities Using Health Promotion [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Jun 16 [cited 2023 Sept 24]. Available from:
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