The educational system of Pakistan is very different from the other country, the schools in Pakistan are in different medium as compared to other schools in abroad, e:g, English medium schools, O levels schools, Urdu medium schools and madrassahs which are religious oriented. There is growing evidence to indicate that teachers are highly influenced by their beliefs, which in turn are closely linked to their values, to their views of the world, and to their understanding of their place within it.
Michael Borg‘s (2001) defined that a belief is a proposition which may be consciously or unconsciously held, is evaluative in that it is accepted as true by the individual, and is therefore imbued with emotive commitment; further, it serves as a guide to thought and behavior. Most definitions of belief propose that beliefs dispose or guide people‘s thinking and action.
Beliefs play an important role in many aspects of teaching, as well as in life. They are involved in helping individuals make sense of the world, influencing how new information is perceived, and whether it is accepted or rejected. Beliefs color memories with their evaluation and judgment, and serve to frame our understanding of events. (Cited from ‘teachers belief and the theoretical resources)
Borg’s emphasis on the conscious and unconscious thoughts and behaviours of an individual, he further highlights on the beliefs on teaching aspects where new knowledge is given to individuals whether it is accepted or rejected.
English as language teaching for teachers in Pakistan is considered to be their field of specialization because the subjects are taught in schools are in English language accept islamiat and sindhi subject, the teachers teaching skills is only medium of instructions to the learners in the respected classes. According to Borg’s definition on belief, teacher’s belief is focused on the methodology and strategies of learning any subject that is given in the class and thus learners have to learn to what teachers have told them to learn. Learners have different capabilities so, if the teacher knows every learners needs and abilities in what aspect of learning they can able to receive some knowledge than the job is accomplished.
Beliefs play a key role in teachers’ classroom practices and their professional development. Harste and Burke (1977) and Kuzborska (2011) said that teachers make decisions about their classroom teaching regarding beliefs they have about language teaching and learning.
They emphasized that teachers’ beliefs have a great impact on their aims, procedures, their roles, and their learners. Richards and Rodgers (2001) asserted that teachers have beliefs about language learning and these helped them get a special approach to language teaching. (Cited from teachers belief in teaching English language and learning, 4th paragraph)
Teachers in private and public schools of Karachi have different views in teaching English language skills because many of the teachers who have graduated from economics, mathematics or science background have few understanding on English teaching and their talent towards teaching for English language is not good enough, for those who have graduated from Urdu medium and has done MA in English also do not have the exposure and skills for teaching English language in the classroom because many teachers have degrees in high levels but to teach the learner best and appropriate learning in English language they must know the attitudes and behaviours of individuals in the classroom. Teacher needs to develop the skills of teaching various approaches in his/her teaching methods in the classroom and then strategies are applied English language teaching is entirely based on creativeness and explores various thoughts that a learner brings in the classroom.
Classroom observations revealed that teachers had adopted a subject-based approach to teach English rather than a skill-based approach. Teaching English grammar through translation, explaining difficult words in the mother tongue and writing definitions of new words in the mother tongue confirms the language inadequacy of both the teachers and students. Moreover, they reflect the inability of the teacher to teach language through a skill-based approach where various skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing are used in a cohesive manner to argument language skills. According to Krashen (1981), language acquisition does not require extensive use of grammar rules and it does not occur overnight. Real language acquisition develops slowly. (Cited from Teaching and learning in Sindh schools p,15)
In the comparison of Chinese ELT teaching skills, the Chinese educationist Xin Tao (1999) finds that the sources of teacher beliefs, as the result of self-construction and cultural interaction, are the result of social history and culture. By reading relevant books and articles, the author form a thinking frame that constructivism psychologists claim a teacher‘s beliefs as the result of his or her self-construction. The beliefs arise from the teacher‘s own direct experience. Each teacher has different processes of self-construction. And social psychologists emphasize the importance of social cultural impact on a teacher‘s beliefs. (Cited from Theory and practice studies, p.1398)
Heather Davis and Carey Andrzejewski (2009) asserted that beliefs essentially function in a way similar to a lens on a magnifying glass. They clarify and guide interpretation of what may be ambiguous or unfocused. Generally, teachers interpret ambiguous situations in ways that are consistent with their beliefs. Beliefs also serve as a foundation for setting goals and standards by framing what is viewed in detail and focusing teachers' attention and energy. Similarly, they delimit what is peripheral, determining what teachers do not see, emphasize, or examine. Because beliefs help teachers to make sense of what they experience in the classroom, they create meaning for teachers. Moreover, they prepare teachers to experience certain emotions by mapping pleasant feelings onto some experiences (i.e., success or failure) and unpleasant feelings onto others.
Teaching well also means learning well to some extent, and teachers‘ beliefs will subconsciously push teachers to adopt different teaching-learning methods. When teachers believe that teaching well primarily depends on making school work interesting, they will reject as irrelevant parts of the course that focus on teaching students to use metacognitive strategies for reading to learn. When teachers believe that student‘s effort is the salient factor contributing to success as a learner, they will reject as irrelevant learning how to foster comprehension skills or how to help students develop study techniques specific to the subject matter they teach. (Cited from theory and practice in language learning, p.1399)
- Aslam, A., Dar, F., Akmal, M., & Aziz, S. (2014). policy and practice sindh.cdr. Teaching and learning in sindh schools, p,14-42. Retrieved from http://www.sahe.org.pk/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/Teaching-and-Learning-English-in-Sindh-Schools-2014-1.pdf
- Zu, L. (2012). Theory and practice in language studies. The role of teacher's belief in the language teaching learning process, 2(7), p,1397-1402. doi:10.4304/tpls.2.7.1397-1402