Selection of appropriate data analysis tools
Everyone gathers and interprets a lot of it in numerical or measurable structures in everyday life. It is a typical practice that individuals get expansive amounts of data regularly through discussions, TVs, PCs, papers, radios, blurbs, directions, and notification. It is on the grounds that there is so much data accessible that individuals should probably assimilate, select and dismiss it Each question got a unique code after gathering the finalized survey. The questions that include categorical and nominal variables were coded to be able to get the results using SPSS. An excel sheet paper was prepared using the google form. Then it was imported to the SPSS software to get the bar and pie charts. The respondents that the researcher got were 84 answers. The software is used to analyze the data from the survey. It was also used to assess research reliability and validity. The research contained quantitative research methodology. Thus, the part will outline respondents’ nature, the sampling, collection of the survey and distribution. The public sector plays a vital role in the UAE. It focusses on offering main governmental services. The employee of the public sector was the desired population. The sampling methodology depends on cost, tie, and accuracy. The best sample satisfies the needs of reliability, efficiency, representative and flexibility.
Application of suitable data analysis tools
The questionnaire reliability
Table. Reliability Statistics
Number of Items Cronbach’s Alpha
11 (V1,V2,V3,V4,V5,V6,V7,V8,V9,V10,V25) .8021
Participative 6 (V19,V20,V21,V22,V23,V24) 0.6352
Team Oriented 8 (V11,V12,V13,V14,V15,V16,V17,V18) 0.782
Total Quality Management 6 (Q1,Q2,Q3,Q4,Q5,Q6) 6 .6312
The table explained the reliability of the research. The team-oriented in leadership behavior is the most effective factors on total quality management implementation. Participative leadership behaver also plays a role in applying total quality management standards. The charismatic leadership plays a medium role in the total quality management application.
Table: respondents’ profile
Sum=84 Size of the company
The position of the employee in the company sum=84 How long the employee worked for the current leader N=84
% % % %
Female 36.9 above 500 workers 64.3
above 10 years 39.3
39.2 5-10 years 36.8
36.9 Less than 5 years 23.7
The percentage of females is 36.9% and the males’ percentage is 63.1%. 64.3% of respondents are working in a company that has above 500 workers. 35.7% of respondents are working in companies that contain 100-500 workers. 36.9% of the respondents are labored. 39.2% of people are working in the lower management department. 23.9% of respondents are working in middle management.
Table- Respondents Gender
Frequency Percentage Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Males 53 62.12 62.1 62.1
Females 31 36.98 36.9 100.0
Total 84 100.0 100.0
Females are 31 and males are 53. The males are more than females.
The percentage of females is 36.9 and the percentage of males is 62.12.
Standard deviation 0.485
The mean of the question is 1.22. the mode is 1 that presented males. The variance was 0.22.
Table- How long did the employee work with this current manager
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid Less than 5 years 20 19.00 39.3
5-10 years 32 49.12 60.7
above 10 years 31 32.43 100.0
Total 84 100.0
The bar chart shows the period of working in the organization. 20 respondents who equal to 19% of employees are working in their organizations for less than 5 years. 32% of employees are working between 5 to 10 years. 49% of respondents are working for more than 10 years.
Table- The position of the respondents in the organization
Frequency Out of a hundred The Cumulative Percent
Valid Top/Middle Management 3 24 2.6
Lower Management/Supervisory Staff 61 39 28.4
Labor 20 37 100.0
Total 84 100.0
The table showed the respondents’ majority. 61 of respondents which equal to 39% are working in the supervisors’ staff.
39% of employees are working in lower management. 24% of employees are working in the top management. 37 % of employees are working as labors.
Table- (The organization’s size) Number of employees working in an organization
Frequency Percentage Valid Percent Increasing Percent
Valid 100-500 workers 30 35.72 35.72 35.76
above 500 workers 54 64.29 64.29 100.0
Total 84 100.0 100.0
35% of respondents are working in an organization that contains between 100 to 500 workers. 64% of respondents are working in an organization that contains above 500 workers.
Table-The company period trying to apply to total quality management
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid 2 to 5 years 28 33.33 33.33 32.0
more than 5 years 52 61.90 61.90 100.0
Total 84 100.0 100.0
The table and the pie chart showed the percentage of frequency related to the period when the company started to apply total quality management. 28 of respondents which equal to 35% are working in organizations that started applying total quality management between 2 to 5 years. 52 of respondents which equal to 65% are working in organizations which started to apply total quality management more than 5 years ago.
Table- gender? The period when the organization started to apply total quality management/ Crosstabulation
How long your organization is trying to implement TQM/ Total
2 to 5 years More than 5 years
Gender Females 10 21 31
Males 16 37 53
The sum 26 58 84
The table shows the crosstabulation between the gender and the period that the organization starting total quality management application. 10 females are working in organizations that started to apply total quality management from 2 to 5 years ago. 21 females are working in companies that started to apply total quality management more than 5 years ago. 16 males are working in organizations that are applying total quality management from 2 to 5 years ago. 37 of males are working in organizations that are applying total quality management more than 5 years ago. Based on that, it can realize that companies understand the importance of applying total quality management to develop their organizational performance.
The leaders’ behaviors that were deliberated contains team-oriented, charismatic leadership; and participative. Each one of these behaviors has many questions in the questionnaire.
Team Oriented Charismatic Leadership Participative
N Valid 84 84 84
Missing 0 0 0
Mean 3.61 3.82 3.36
Median 3.63 3.86 3.33
Mode 4a 4a 3a
Std. Deviation .739 .656 .724
Variance .547 .430 .424
a. Multiple modes happen. The smallest value is presented
The table shows the factors that play a role in developing leadership cooperation and performance. Team-Oriented is the most influential factor that affects the application of total quality management. when team members cooperate, they develop organizational performance. experiences and skills will be exchanged to choose the best practices. team oriented has a mean of 3.61, a median of 3.6 and a mode of 4. Its standard deviation is 0.7 and its variance is 0.5. The charismatic factor has a mean of 3.8, a mode of 4 and a median of 3.9. its standard deviation is 0.6 and the variance is 0.4. participative factor has a median of 3, a mode of 4 and a mean of 3.3. the standard deviation is 0.7 and the variance is 0.4.
Table-Total quality management factors-Statistics
The depended variable-Total Quality Management
N Valid 84
Missing responses 0
Standard Deviation .631
The dependent variable Total quality management is shown in the table above. It has a mean of 2.81, a mode of 4, a median of 4. The standard deviation is 0.6 and the variance is 0.4. the most answers of the scale from 1 to 5 was 4 which means that respondents agree with the importance of applying total quality management in the organizations.
The relation of TQM and leadership behaviors
Table 4.2.12 Correlations
Total Quality Management
Charismatic Leadership Pearson Relationship .353
Sig. (2-tracked) .000
The sum 84
Team Oriented leadership Pearson Correlation .501
Sig. (2-tracked) .000
The sum 84
Participative leadership Pearson Relationship .492
Sig. (2-tracked) .000
The sum 84
This table shows the independent variables which are charismatic leadership, participative leadership, and team-oriented leadership. It is also showing the dependent variable which is total quality management. the table is presenting the correlation coefficient measurements. That includes two variable and the relation between them whether it is strong or weak. It also may show that direction of the relation. The results ensure that there are positive relations between total quality management and leadership behaviors. The small relation is between 0.10 and 0.29. the medium relation is between 0.30 and 0.4. the strongest relationship is between 0.5 and 1.
Based on the results of the scatter diagrams, charismatics leadership obtains a medium relation with the total quality management where R is equal to 0.4. team-oriented leadership has a strong relationship with the total quality management where R is equal to 0.5. participative leadership is also obtaining a medium relation with total quality management where R is equal to 0.3.
Most respondents agree that managers encourage their employees and that play an important role in increasing organizational performance. 22 of respondents agree that managers are encouraging employees in the organization.
The bar chart shows the agreement of respondents with the statement. 55 of respondents strongly agree that top management monitor the performance developed. 20 of respondents agree that top management monitors the performance development. that highlights the importance of monitoring the performance to ensure that tasks are achieved as planned. Total quality management forces the managers to arrange the operational plans which contain performance indicators. These main performance indicators monitor the performance and compare the results with the desired targets. This top management commitment to performance development encourage all employees to work hard to finish tasks on time.
This part will investigate the findings relating to the literature review. The varied nature of the work related to globalization causes issues that require more emphasizing on the leader’s behavior. the total quality management is considered as a modern practice that starts with strategic planning that includes vision. That vision must be improved by the leaders. It can be considered as an effective achievement that includes a leader’s behavior that can be considered as a great sample to develop the organizational culture.
Many studies explained the relations between TQM and leader’s commitment. Most of the articles focused on transformational and transactional leadership. Few of the studies stated that leadership can be considered as team-oriented, charismatic and cooperate leadership on the quality system application.
The findings that related to this study relates to the respondents’ opinions about the leader’s behaviors. All the behaviors were positively related to successful TQM application. In fact, team-oriented was the most effective factor that affected total management implementation. This paper agrees with Murry, (2009) that provided a discussion of the leadership influence on the total quality management. the previously mentioned paper used the same data collection methodology which is the questionnaire survey.
In addition, the findings of the studies are like the findings of Mohamed’s study (2006). He mentioned that the leader’s behaviors are participative. Thee leaders used techniques like self-directed practices with teams and circles of quality. that had a more effective influence on the TQM accomplishment. Participative behavior facilitates implementing TQM. That is because it allows employees to move and work hard to guarantee customers satisfaction. Administration and Management responsibility are the dynamic elements of TQM program execution, which is important to show the dimension of initiative and the executive’s duty to the association. A solid dimension of initiative responsibility is required to beat singular opposition. TQM programs depend on the inclusion of nearby representatives and people to be a functioning component in the improvement procedure of the association. Regularly, TQM programs are created to support participative administration, to diminish the number of organization levels, to expand responsibility, and to exchange a portion of the authority duties to the non-the board people. Accentuation is put on preparing critical people in the Total Quality Management forms and in expanding their individual expertise levels.
This part includes a summary of the research based on the research questions and findings. Limitations and recommendations will be mentioned next phase.
The pioneers in UAE ought to be willing to underscore on the general population situated components of the executive’s duty and individuals’ association, which will increment or change the procedure components of persistent improvement and the general population of UAE open area fulfillment in improving the adequacy of execution must be featured. Compelling administration and complete quality administration requests preparation of the UAE individuals. The ability and pride in the nation and the administration’s readiness to give the assets important to serve and fulfill the overall population needs should be stressed. In any case, this paper recommends that dependent on past authority, a TQM program will be progressively successful in expanding the abilities and execution of government, organizations, and the overall population in the UAE.
The paper prepared to investigate the influence of team-oriented, charismatic and participative leadership and its influence on TQM application. The effects of leader’s behaviors have a positive effect on TQM implementation. The sample was chosen to investigate the effects of leadership on TQM implementation was the public sector. The paper reviewed many articles about the relations between TQM application and leadership behavior. Leadership behavior is a needed concept that maximizes effectiveness and efficiency to accomplish tasks on time. Murry (2010), stated that the rate of employee’s participation in developing processes relates to the management committee.
The results were found from the previous measurements consisting of the results of many papers and other researches (Hirtz, and Worley 2001). Both participative and charismatic leadership behavior has a positive and medium influence on Total quality management. the team-oriented has the strongest effect on applying the total quality management principles. Which measures that working together develop organizational performance. There was a theory that one hand cannot clap. That is true because the team should cooperate and work together to achieve the desired targets.