Teenage pregnancy is also known as adolescent pregnancy. Pregnancy can occur with sexual intercourse after the start of ovulation, which can be before the first menstrual period (menarche) but usually occur after the onset of periods. In well-nourished females, the first period usually takes place around the age of 12 -13. Pregnant teenagers face many of the same pregnancy-related issues as other women. One of the major concerns of having a child or becoming a parent is to do so we’re old and mature enough to take on the responsibility. One of the problems in today’s society is teenage pregnancy. The risk of pregnancy in teenagers is increasing and largely. Many teenagers don’t know how big of a responsibility it is to raise another human being when they themselves still have a lot of growing to do. Teenagers need to be more educated about themselves and their bodies as well as ways to protect themselves from getting pregnant if they’re sexually active. Also, teenagers are more prone to risk during pregnancy than a twenty or thirty-year-old woman would be. Becoming a teen parent automatically gives us a big responsibility to deal with. This means that all of the personal priorities are set aside and that our child comes first. Dealing with the responsibility of being a parent is one of the hardest tasks to take on. Becoming a parent involves emotion, compassion, dedication, strength, knowledge, protectiveness, and being able to financially support the child. Parenting also involves many other components, which sometimes come with the territory of being a parent. It’s a hard job but someone’s got to do it.
In developed countries, teenage pregnancies are associated with social issues, including lower educational levels, poverty, and other negative life outcomes in children of teenage mothers. Teenagers who become pregnant often come from families of low socioeconomic status. This means children growing up in these homes do not have strong role models or individuals to look up to or learn from. With their lack of education and knowledge about reproduction, these teens engage in unprotected and unsafe sexual activity. During adolescence, teenagers may drink alcohol and experiment with drugs frequently with their friends at social gatherings and parties. These substances greatly affect a teen's ability to logically think and carry out general thinking processes, thus increases the chances they will engage in unprotected and unsafe sexual activity. Media also can give a big impact on their teenagers. These shows often glamorize pregnancy and hide the true hardships associated with pregnancy which encourages these teens to become pregnant. Some teenage females become pregnant just so they are able to drop out of high school or force their partners into a deeper commitment. Rebellion is also another reason why some teens will become pregnant. In order to show their independence and deem themselves as having more control over their lives, a teen may decide to have a child. These television glorify the idea of having a child through the promotion of these teenagers having a more adult lifestyle, with more responsibility and decision-making power. Lack of education among teenagers should be given priority, I am agreeing that sexual education should be learned in school. To be aware of the effect that may occur a problem with family another issue. Some of the teenagers are not provided with their own families, and most of the teenagers get rebelled. Sexual abuse is also another reason why teens may become pregnant. Early sexual abuse has been linked to later teen pregnancies. Some children have unfortunately been sexually abused by predators or even families even prior to entering puberty. These young kids often are unable to inform a trusted adult about the situation due to fear of being harmed by their predator. These situations, further affect the child as they enter adolescence and increases the chances of teen pregnancy.
Health risk to the baby
A baby inside of a woman’s womb depends on its carrier greatly. A baby born to a teenage mother is more at risk than a baby born to a grown mother. Most teen girls have low birth weight babies. Low birth weight babies may have organs that are not fully developed. This can lead to lung problems such as respiratory distress syndrome, or bleeding in the brain. Low baby birth weight is 40x more likely to die in their first month of life than normal-weight babies. Low birth weight babies also may have immature organs ( brain, lung, heart ), difficulty controlling body temperature and blood sugar levels, and mental retardation. Low-birth-weight babies have a higher risk of dying in early infancy than among normal-weight babies. Low birth weight babies are exposed to mental retardation, brain damage, and injury at birth.
Health risk to the mother
A teenage mother has a special problem, emotionally, and physically. The death rate from pregnancy complications is a lot higher for girls who are pregnant under the age of 15 than among older teenagers. Pregnant teenagers are more likely to be undernourished and suffer premature or prolonged labor. During the first 3 months of pregnancy, seven out of ten teenage girls do not get prenatal care see a doctor, or go to a clinic. If a teenage girl with STI or HIV can pass complications to her baby when it is born. Teenage girls may also have developed many emotional problems such as depression, shame, guilt, and stress. Teenage mothers have the risk of problems such as poor weight gain, premature labor, and other complication.
Teen pregnancy affects educational opportunity
Teen pregnancy and parenting contribute significantly to high school drop-out rates among teen girls. Thirty percent of teenage girls who drop out of high school cite pregnancy or parenthood as a primary reason. Only about half of women ages 20-29 who gave birth as a teen have a high school diploma, compared to 90 percent of women ages 20-29 who did not have a teen birth. And among those who have a baby before age 18, about 40 percent finish high school, and fewer than 2 percent finish college by age 30.
Older Teens and Community College
Older teens (ages 18-to-19) are more than four times as likely to become parents than are younger teens (ages 15-to-17). Older teens account for about 70 percent of all teen births. In addition, the older teen birth rate is declining at a slower rate than the younger teen birth rate. Pregnancy among this age group can disrupt young people’s educational and career goals, as older teens are often finishing high school and entering the job market, or pursuing post-secondary education. Sixty-one percent of students who have a child after enrolling in community college fail to complete their degree. This dropout rate is 65 percent higher than for those who do not have children during community college. Nationally, unplanned births (including births to teenage students) result in nearly 1-in-10 dropouts by women from a community college.
Strategy to prevent teenage pregnancy
children should get early education from home through their own parents. Parents should lay a basic understanding of reproductive health and teach their children the values and responsibilities concerning sexuality, and risky sexual conduct that could lead to pregnancy. Inform them about the dangers of sexually transmitted diseases ( HIV/AIDS ), unprotected sex, baby dumping, rape, and abortion.
Teach them how to say NO and recognize risky behavior and situations that could lead to premarital sex. For example, how to confidently and assertively confront pressure lines like if a person says “ I love you ‘ or we were meant to be together forever. Awareness and common knowledge skills may prevent our children from making hasty decisions they will regret. Always keep an eye on our children and mold them with a good value and model the morals that we want them to espouse. Rules and boundaries are also important to all families to have them. Be sure they understand our rule regarding reproductive health and relationship with the other sex. Be approachable and reassure them that if they have any questions or doubts about reproduction or anything else for that matter, we are there for them. Keep it simple and our children easily can understand. Practice by role-playing a few possible scenarios they might encounter in life. Teenagers also should be told about contraception, its application, and abstinence from sex to prevent teenage pregnancy. There are several instances that may hinder a girl from avoiding pregnancy. In such a situation, the attitudes and behavior of adolescents should be directed towards safe sex practices
Role as a government to prevent teenage pregnancy
Recent polling by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy finds strong support for implementing evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs. This program approaches increases the likelihood that communities can find teen pregnancy prevention programs that are consistent with their values, responsive to the needs of their families and teens, and effective at preventing pregnancy. Got so many types of teen pregnancy prevention program models that have an established evidence base of effectiveness. Firstly, focus on improving reproductive health outcomes such as preventing pregnancy or increasing STI knowledge. In general, these programs promote both abstinence and contraception for adolescents who become sexually active. The second is specifically designed to be implemented in a health clinic or by clinic staff or physicians. Often these programs target teens who are seeking contraceptive services or diagnosis/treatment for STIs focus on improving the parent-child relationship, particularly around communication about sexual behavior and healthy romantic relationships. In some instances, parents are the primary participants in these programs; in others, the program is taught to parent-child pairs.
Youth development programs may or may not focus on reproductive health but are primarily designed to increase pro-social behavior, positive relationships, school achievement, or health outcomes broadly. Several of these programs have successfully reduced teen pregnancies or delayed sexual initiation in addition to positive impacts on other youth development outcomes.
Role as a nurses to prevent teenage pregnancy
Nurses care for adolescents in a variety of settings, including communities, schools, and public health and acute care clinics, which affords them many opportunities to improve adolescents’ sexual and reproductive health and reduce the rates of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. To ensure that adolescents have access to sexual and reproductive health care (which includes both preventive counseling and treatment) in all nursing practice sites, nurses need to gain the knowledge and hone the skills required to deliver evidence-based counseling and services to adolescents and parents. They can be educated about sexuality, reproduction, sexually transmitted diseases, and contraception. Collectively, nurses can use their unique combination of knowledge and skills to make a positive impact on adolescent sexual and reproductive outcomes. Nurses have the capacity and opportunity to disseminate information about sexual and reproductive health to adolescents and their parents in communities, schools, public health clinics, and acute care settings. Cultural and ethnic sensitivity is a crucial component of all interventions in this area. Most effective are programs that continually reinforce and strengthen individual values and group norms in favor of delaying sexual intercourse, avoiding unprotected sex, using condoms, and avoiding high-risk partners. Finally, nurses should be active participants in school boards, parent-teacher associations, religious and youth organizations, and national and local teen pregnancy prevention coalitions.
ROLE AS A SCHOOL HEALTH TEAM
Position of the National Association of School Nurses (NAS) saying that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as ) has school nurses has a crucial leadership role on the school team to support the health, well-being and educational success of pregnant or parenting students. The school nurse contributes to the health and academic success of pregnant and parenting students by providing evidence-based nursing interventions. All school-based interventions and services for pregnant and/or parenting students should be age-appropriate, culturally sensitive, and student-centered. Adequate support is critical for achieving high school graduation and successful parenting. The interventions provided by school nurses may include assistance in pregnancy identification, referral or provision of quality prenatal care, childcare referrals, parenting education, and education regarding prevention of future pregnancy, referral to clinical services and health care, as well as leadership on interdisciplinary teams. The school nurse should focus on developing Individualized Health care Plans and work with teams to establish systems that will accommodate the student so that she is able to maintain school attendance ultimately leading to graduation success. School nurses should also collaborate with colleagues and advocate for comprehensive education and services to prevent the incidence of pregnancy in adolescence.