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The Arts and Crafts Movement: From the Past to the Present

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The Arts and Crafts movement are to assert the individual craft people who are creativity independent, and to retuned to hand craftsmanship. Take the reaction of against the industrialized society that the boom in Britain during the Victorian period, also the organization (artistic reform). Nowadays, the Arts and Crafts Movement design has transformed into society, as individual artists are still using and create new art, as the art itself can be seen as against industrialization. Moreover, by transforming on to something completely different, for instance, wearable garments.

The Arts and Crafts Movement was coin by William Morris, a socialist late 19th century, who was also a textiles designer. The development in Britain on industrial production, the massive increase in nineteenth- century, and inevitably aroused some opposition. He designed some beautiful patterns of wallpapers, fabrics, and furniture. Thinking logically, he used his inspiration of craftsmanship on a conception of life that art might become flourish again.

John Ruskin and William Morris are the major influence in this movement as they have brought the new themes, for instance, the different civilizations on ancient art like Islamic, Japanese. It cannot be isolated to one specific style as it can be ‘exotic and precious’ or ‘homely and plain’ which could also represent as the hand craftsmanship. The period that the furniture being mass production that they all the same, Ruskin and Morris had hoped that to the regeneration of art could bring a new medieval condition. Ruskin mentioned: “The art of any epoch must of necessity be the expression of its social life, and that the social life of the Middle Ages allowed the workman freedom of individual expression, which on the other hand our social life forbid him”. The rise in industrialization had prevented the expression of the worker to be part of the piece created during the process of making.

‘Imperfection’ Ruskin identified as an essential feature of gothic art, contrasting it with the mechanical regularity of neoclassical building and modern mass production, as he believed, allowed a significant degree of creative freedom and artistic fulfillment to the individual workman. In this proposition lay the roots both of Ruskin’s quarrel with industrial capitalism and of the Arts and Crafts movement of the later 19th century.

“Remember that a pattern is either right or wrong. It cannot be forgiven for blundering, as a picture may be which has otherwise great qualities in it. It is with a pattern as with a fortress; it is no stronger than its weakest point”, – William Morris.

The Arts and Crafts Movement became a profitable design trend as the time passing, William Morris started the company in 1861 with his friend mainly work on a furnishings and decorative arts manufacturer, influenced by the flourishing based on the Arts and Crafts Movement between the 1880s and 1890s. The company has remained in operation in a limited fashion trend from World War I, until its closure in 1940.

William Morris’s print works are always detailed and stylized evocations of natural forms as he treated his prints as a ‘makeshift’, which is a tolerable substitute. Used 30 different blocks were used to print each roll, including ‘Wreath 1976’ as the blocks are used nowadays. Each pattern consists of around 15 colors. Each color on the print printed individually; a new block is used for the next stage after it dried then the second color is printed over the first print, the third is printed over the latter, repeating. Around the 1870s, William Morris was entirely forced on the wallpaper design, which requested with sophisticated printing techniques, including a large number of different printing blocks.

‘Wreath 1876’ was one of his best wallpaper designs. A flourishing pattern of entwined olive leaves and blue flowers attached relies on his well-practiced and close observation. The pattern repeating printed in the natural forms. William Morris mentioned, “the more mechanical the process like paper-staining, the less direct should be an imitation of natural forms”. Because of the used of materials, complexed techniques, and patterns, his wallpaper design is costly, moreover making is not always about the final look, are the processes on how to create art.

Recognizing the Morris chair around the world is effortless. Its reclining back identifies it, high armrests and notches underneath, which can be used to adjust the degree of slant. “In the 17th century a chair of this type would have been in oak, without upholstery or casters, but the Edwardian era required more comfort and more movability”, – Jan Mars, who was the president of William Morris Society. A chair has had a slow evolution, and the best chairs are an essential symbol as well as the place to sit and relax.

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William Morris also satisfaction into the furniture designs, especially the surface design on the chair. Because he is best known as well as structured the form of natural ways, he has transformed the wallpaper designs onto the chair designs as well. He created structure through his designs by building robust, rhythmic and fluid lines from the shapes of leaves, vines, and branches, and he frequently superimposed the main pattern over a smaller, recessive background pattern to fill the design space.

This is designed by Philip Webb, who was an English architecture; we also called him the Father of Arts and Crafts in architecture. Philip Webb and William Morris formed a vital part of the Arts and Crafts movement, founded the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings around 1877. The chair that can be adjusted on a metal ratchet. Simple versions of the same type. The chair cover was combined an ebonized finish, evidence of contemporary interest, in the Japanese way to designed and used of traditional techniques from English furniture, made bobbin turning on the legs. Used ‘Utrecht Velvet’, it’s very often to see it on the furniture, especially in Morris & Co.

Fabric and clothing have the closest relationship and intimate relation to the body, as clothing is a classic fetish item, moreover, the ubiquity of textiles in most of the major edited collection and journals focusing on gender and material culture or consumption. From the different things or products, themselves have all condense with construct gender elements not just feminized form of labor, for instance, weaving, knitting, and embroidery, etc. William Morris has used Utrecht Velvet for the chair covers; however, the designer Hussein Chalayan borrowed the structure of the chair covers and turned the fabric as wearable and comfortable garments. But some particular materials are automatically used either for the wearable clothing or furniture.

Hussein Chalayan is a fashion designer from Turkey, who has won the British Designer of the Year twice. From one the of his collection in 2000, he has transformed the daily furniture’s (four chair covers and a coffee table became four dresses and a skirt) to make a combination the philosophical ideas with wearable clothes, the design of that was inspired by refugees during the war, focused on them who were forced to leave their home country.

In the 19th century, there was an individual between political refugee and newly political. The ‘century of exiles’ make the start of a new era in the history of forced migrations. The word ‘exiles’ here presented as men, who pushed to cross the boards of nation-states, which were then in the process of becoming established in Europe. “Do not dare return to their country”. That they have forced to leave their own country.

In Chalayan’s BA womenswear collection, he uses the ground-breaking method of combining unconventional textiles materials. The burned reaction and the processes of the natural silk, that the experimenter in his garden and exhumed for around six weeks, as well as took the prose of oxidation, what I meant by that is loos the electron during a reaction by a molecule, atom, an ion. The collections garments appear to be decomposed, and rotten showing earthy stains in a rusty shade as Chalayan demonstrates how beautiful the process of decaying and recycling can be, experienced with innovative products, who has explored how technology can bringing into fashion.

“I can’t categorize what I do; I am just cross feeding difference disciplines and creating a new categorize in the process”, – Hussein Chalayan.

He has his straightforward vision to negotiate through the tumultuous ups and downs of the industry while creating designs that transcend fashion.

From a cultural perspective, the production of any objects is also a culture and cognitive process, culturally marked as being a certain kind of thing. However, the American author Kopytoff pointed out the question on what sort of object may have and what sort of biography is more deeply to a matter of social contrast and individual taste in modern societies than in smaller scale, nonmonetized, preindustrial ounces. The object does not exhaust its biography as it is culturally regulated and its interpretation is open in individual manipulation to some of the degree.

In any society, the individual is often symbolically precisely by insisting on it’ right to singularize an object or set the class of object. The individual is often caught between the cultural structure of commodification as an individual mind can contrast many classes and different universes of universal value.

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The Arts and Crafts Movement: From the Past to the Present. (2022, August 25). Edubirdie. Retrieved February 1, 2023, from
“The Arts and Crafts Movement: From the Past to the Present.” Edubirdie, 25 Aug. 2022,
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