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The Aspects Of Chlamydophila

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Chlamydophila psittaci is a gram-negative commit intracellular bacterium that causes both fundamental disease and pneumonia, regularly alluded to as psittacosis or ornithosis. Once in the past arranged under the genus Chlamydia, C. psittaci is now assembled with C. pneumoniae, C. pecorum, C. abortus, C. caviae, and C. felis in the genus Chlamydophila of the family Chlamydiaceae.

This species incorporates six avian serovars, assigned A to F, and two mammalian strains (M56 and WC).2 Sequenced C. psittaci genomes have a solitary chromosome of around 1.1Mb and a saved plasmid of ~8Kb containing 7-8 protein-coding arrangements. psittaci microorganisms are heat labile and killed at 560 C for 30 minutes. They are additionally killed by regular disinfectants; be that as it may, they withstand dessication for a considerable length of time.

Virulence factor psittaci is generally acquired from inhalation of aerosolized fecal material of infected birds and causes an acute disease called psittacosis. … Recently, a Chlamydia-specific protein CT135 has been categorized as a single virulence factor

EPIDEMIOLOGY OF INFECTION

Psittacosis is viewed as an uncommon zoonotic disease and is a foundational contamination brought about by inward breath of Chlamydia psittaci. The source is generally a tainted bird which might be asymptomatic. Release from noses, eyes, excrement, and urine are for the most part irresistible and sully the flying creature’s plumes and the encompassing dust. Occasionally, psittacosis is spread to people from warm blooded creatures (birth liquids and placentas of sheep, goats and dairy cattle, and felines with conjunctivitis); individual to-individual spread is uncommon, and conceivable nosocomial transmission has been depicted. An as of late portrayed epidemiologic hazard is the developing act of pet-helped treatment in nursing homes.

NAMES OF CAUSED DISEASES

Chlamydiosis – Also known as Psittacosis, can be transmitted to humans. In individuals, the disease causes influenza like side effects of fever, chills and headachePsittacosis can cause mild illness or pneumonia (lung contamination). Whenever left untreated, Psittacosis can cause liver and kidney harm or even meningitis.

HOW BACTERIA CAUSED THE DISEASE?

The bacteria can infect people exposed to infected birds. it’s important to understand that infected birds don’t always show signs of disease or seem sick. Both sick birds and birds without signs of illness shed the bacteria in their droppings and respiratory secretions. When the droppings and secretions dry, small dust particles (including the bacteria) can get into the air. the foremost common way someone gets infected is by inhaling the dust from these dried secretions. Less commonly, birds infect people through bites and beak-to-mouth contact, human to human infection doesn’t happen Chlamydia undergo a singular biphasic developmental cycle. The infectious form ofChlamydia, the elementary body (EB) enters into the host cell via endocytosis. Upon entry, the EB convert into the metabolically active, non- infectious reticulate body (RB), which replicates within a vaculolarcompartment, termed the inclusion. Once the developmental cycle is sort of complete, the RBs revert into EBs, stimulating host cell lysis and release of the infectious EBs into the extracellular space. These EBs then move onto to infect new host cells.

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HOST IMMUNE RESPONSE

chlamydia‐infected alveolar epithelial cells secretes IL‐8(recruitesand activates neutrophils), DCs and macrophages detect conserved pathogen‐derived molecules initiating the synthesis and release of proinflammatorycytokines. Chlamydial EBs trigger the cascade of the complement system leading to the cleavage C3‐complement factor into the products C3a and b. C3a directly stimulates CD4+T cells (Th1 and Th2) moreover as CD8+cytotoxic T cells and activates DCs.

Alternatively, signaling via C3a/C3aR downmodulatesthe activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs), thereby decreasing their inhibition of T cells and DCs. DCs activated by chlamydia present bacterial antigens to T cells on their surface and stimulate differentiation of naïve T cells into different subtypes of effector T cells. The infected DCs themselves allow only restricted bacterial growth, because the resulting inclusions are disrupted, resulting in the discharge of chlamydiae into the cytosol. Free bacteria are then haunted by autophagosomes and are proteolytically processed for MHC‐mediated antigen presentation. The peptide antigens generated are then loaded onto suitable allelic products of MHC I and MHC II, which gain access to endovacuolarcompartments (amphisomes) via endosomal recycling or vesicle fusion with MHC class II containing (MIIC) endo/lysosomal compartments, and are presented to T cells

PREVENTION

Patient isolation and prophylaxis of contacts are usually not indicated, as person-to-person transmission of C. psittaci is rare. Most states expect clinicians to report instances of psittacosis to the proper wellbeing specialists. Auspicious determination and revealing may help in distinguishing the source of the infectio and controlling the spread of infection.

Instruct patients about the significance of handling birds and cleaning their cages securely. Allude feathered creatures associated as the source with human disease to veterinarians for assessment and treatment. Indications of psittacosis are like numerous other respiratory ailments. Furthermore, tests to recognize the microbes straightforwardly may not be promptly accessible. Consequently, clinicians may not presume it, making psittacosis hard to analyze. CDC once in a while gets reports of psittacosis. Tell your clinician in the event that you become ill in the wake of purchasing or dealing with a pet bird or poultry.

Clinicians can utilize various tests to decide whether somebody has psittacosis. These tests incorporate gathering sputum (mucus), blood or swabs from the nose as well as throat to identify the microorganisms In addition to symptoms and CHX, complement fixation, microimmunofluorescence, and polymerase chain reaction tests can be used to confirm the diagnosis.

TREATMENT

Erythromycin is the alternative therapy of choice. Controversy surrounds comparison of erythromycin with the tetracyclines. Some feel it is at least as good as tetracycline , while others feel it is less effective, especially for severe disease . The newer macrolides (e.g., azithromycin) may eventually prove useful, especially in view of the accumulation of azithromycin in host cells and the intracellular location of C. psittaci . chloramphenicol, which has a reputation ranging from ‘ineffective’ to a ‘viable alternative to tetracycline’ . it probably would be acceptable with mild disease, since it is less active by weight than tetracycline, and patients have tended to respond slowly and to relapse Penicillin represents another theoretical alternative. Since chlamydia have a cell wall, a penicillin effect is not surprising. , but its in vivo effectiveness does not compare with that of tetracycline. However,occasional patients treated with penicillin appear to have improved, and penicillin might bube helpful in large doses, in a manner reminiscent of its effect on certain Gram-negative bacteria.

Rifampin is the most active antibiotic on a weight basis, t there are theoretical concerns about development of resistance. Sulfonamides have not helped most patients in whom they have been used, unlike the situation with C. trachomatis, which synthesizes folate and thus is susceptible to sulfonamides. Aminoglycosides and vancomycin should not be used as therapy, since they permit chlamydial growth in vitro The quinolones, particularly some of the newer compounds, show promise in vitro and in animal models of psittacosis

REFERECES

  1. https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/2043C14F81017450CA257DFC0008021B/$File/chlamydophila-psittaci.pdf
  2. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/chlamydophila-psittaci
  3. https://www.infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com/home/decision-support-in-
  4. medicine/infectious-diseases/chlamydia-psittaci-chlamydophila/
  5. https://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/atypical/psittacosis/hcp/diagnosis-treatment-prevention.html
  6. https://www.petassure.com/new-newsletters/diseases-transmitted-by-pet-birds/
  7. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/psittacosis.pdf
  8. https://www1.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/2043C14F81017450CA257DFC0008021B/$File/chlamydophila-psittaci.pdf
  9. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/medicine-and-dentistry/chlamydophila-psittaci
  10. https://www.infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com/home/decision-support-in-medicine/infectious-diseases/chlamydia-psittaci-chlamydophila/
  11. https://www.cdc.gov/pneumonia/atypical/psittacosis/hcp/diagnosis-treatment-prevention.html
  12. https://www.petassure.com/new-newsletters/diseases-transmitted-by-pet-birds/
  13. http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/psittacosis.pdf

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The Aspects Of Chlamydophila. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved August 12, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/the-aspects-of-chlamydophila/
“The Aspects Of Chlamydophila.” Edubirdie, 17 Feb. 2022, edubirdie.com/examples/the-aspects-of-chlamydophila/
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The Aspects Of Chlamydophila [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 17 [cited 2022 Aug 12]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/the-aspects-of-chlamydophila/
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