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The Component Structure Of Viruses

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Viruses are the smallest microorganisms in life and cannot be seen by naked eyes or with light microscopy. They are considered as a contagious agent that is only regenerated within the host cells of other living organizations and can infect all living organisms in the earth, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and the archaea. Viruses can be identified only through their biological behavior, such as the disease they cause. Viruses are a particular classification; they are not plants, animals, or bacteria, and are generally placed in their kingdom. Viruses should not even be regarded as living organisms in a literal sense; they do not live freely; they cannot carry out metabolic processes without a host cell, this essay will discuss a different aspect of viruses such as size and shape.

Viruses come in different kind of shapes and sizes. They are tiny and estimated in nanometers. Virus size can range between 20 to 750 nm(Sadava et al. n.d.). Most viruses cannot be seen using microscopy because the accuracy of the microscope is limited and so the scanning microscope should be used in most electronic viruses.

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The structure of viruses Is consists of genetic information (DNA or RNA) mainly surrounded by a protein shell or coat. The arrangement of the protein layer and the genetic data comes in a variety of presentations The core of the virus consists of nucleic acids, which form the genetic information in the form of DNA or RNA. The capsid is a protein layer that surrounds and maintains nucleic acids. When one virus is in a full form and has reached full extracellular infection, known as a virion, the structure of the virus can be one of the following: icosahedral, envelope, complex or helical.

These viruses appear spherical, but it is closer to Icosahedron format. Icosahedron consists of fused triangles together in a spherical shape. This method is the best way to form a closed shell with similar protein subunits. The Genetic material is completely enclosed inside the capsule called (capsid). When the cell dies and collapses and decomposes, viruses with microscopic structures are released into the environment, thus releasing virions. Examples of viruses with icosahedral structure are Polio, nasal viruses, and adenovirus.

This virus is a traditional structure icosahedral or helical structure that is Surrounded by a double lipid membrane; This means that the virus is enveloped. The envelope of virus formed when The virus is out of the cell. However, The infection of these viruses is mostly Depends on the envelope. Some famous examples of this type are influenza virus, hepatitis C and HIV.

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The Component Structure Of Viruses. (2022, February 21). Edubirdie. Retrieved January 28, 2023, from
“The Component Structure Of Viruses.” Edubirdie, 21 Feb. 2022,
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