Science communication is informing and raising awareness for science-related topics broadcast throughout the public media. It also signifies communication between scientists sharing different issues. Scientists use their aptitude but also warmth to indicate that the topic matters to them. However, they tend to have been trained knowledge and rigorous focus on the research data/ details that their audience would most like. While talking to reporters or people they have to be aware of their audience’s aspect.
In our society, today media has increased turning the world into some type of global village. The media tend to hype most of the science/ health related issues so as to receive a huge audience. An example would be the Bijlmermeer plane crash which showed how media hypes resulted in increasing people’s aspect towards their health problems to the disaster. Media hypes are generated news that emphasizes regularlyagain, one specific structure while ignoring the other important perspectives. News like this indicates terror and anxiety among people who are of one way to another in the aftermath of disasters.
People usually tend to accept the explanations offered by media and desegregate them in their story about their own health accusations. The Bijlmermeer case signifies that an abrupt increased in media reports about people demand health problems directly after a publicized key event that the media generates. An analysis that was formed after the media coverage of the Bijlmermeer crash which took places in 1998-1999 illustrated that the media hypes developed new ideas to reveal what they thought seemed to prove the disasters and the health complaints. This paper will discuss the traditional conception of public communication of science and why it is problematic, the roles played by media in disseminating information about science/ health and lastly the media providing misinformation regarding science or health-related issues.
Bucchi explains that “The idea that science is ‘too complicated ‘for the public to understand became published particularly as a result of advances made in physics during the early decades of 1900s’’ (Bucchi). Communication in science has developed the main relation of institutionalization of research a profession increasing the growth and advancement of the mass media. The diffusionist conception of public communication incorporates that the media is designed to convey scientific notions due to the lack of competences which includes commercial interests. It also a one-way process that is linear and can transfer knowledge from one subject or groups to another.
It has been problematic due to the media and the public having initial reflections on science communication, and the diffusionist fundamentally rests its notion of communication as the transfer. Studies on public communication of science indicate that 80% of French researchers’ report that they have had some experiences when it comes to popularizing science throughout the mass media. The same similar conclusion/ research was conducted by Dunwoody and Scott in the United States. “A fifth of the articles on science and medicine written in the past 50 years by the newspapers were about science and medical experts” (Bucchi).
In this article, the author outlines the theoretical understanding of science communication through its key elements of the traditional conception, implicitly or explicitly widespread within science communication practice and policies. Bucchi contends that studies of the public communication of science inform us that 80% of the French researchers’ report that they have had experience in popularizing science through media mass. In addition, public communication should be improved in order to promote awareness and interest in science. The argument presented in these articles explains the conception of public communication of science. A model of science communication cross-talk implies that seeing communication is not simply as a cause but for the instance changes the opinion and attitudes among the public.” Science communication has a broader process concerned with the transfer of knowledge’’(Bucchi). This includes the four main stages in the process of scientific communication being used which include the instraspecialist level, Interspecialist level, pedagogic level, and popular level.
The instraspecialist level concludes papers published in specialized journals referring to experimental work and graphs predominate. The inter-specialist level; includes different kinds of texts published in bridge journals such as Nature and science to papers given at meetings of researchers belonged to the same discipline but worked at different areas. Moreover, the pedagogic level is described as a textbook science where the theoretical corpus has already been developed which are the books students use in the classroom where they learn the various ways on how science work and how it’s applied in our daily life.
The popular level covers the articles written on science that is published in a daily press and the amateur science of television documentaries. At the popular level, there are doubts and disclaimers that distinct the specialist knowledge that condenses into elementary and formulas. It presents a constancy of texts with differences in degree, across levels and invites people to imagine a sort of curve for scientific ideas that the leads from the intra specialist expository context to the popular one, passing through the intermediate levels. The models of science communication as a continuum which starts with the instraspecialistic stage, the pedagogical stage then the popular stage and the interspecialistic stage follows.
The roles that media partakes in the aftermath of disasters involves stress for public health officials. Media is also discussed not only in the context of reports on disasters and health-related. For instance, the media coverage is seen as a risk factor for suicide. This article elaborates on theoretical frameworks on the risk amplification process that takes place after disasters, and the way in which the process takes place with the media hypes frame new risk issues. The author poses a question that is used to guide the research: But what do we actually know about the effects of these media messages on the definition of risks, health perception, and personal well-being? Vasterman contends that media hypes can trigger a process years later, which causes health problems and cause risk issues such as post-traumatic stress. Media hypes are triggered by unusual or shocking events occurring which are framed in a way that media always shifting into a higher accessory and looking for a piece of newer news on the topic the audience is demanding for more.
During the hype, the media always tend to generate more news on a topic by reporting equal incidents. Once the topic gains a certain level of attention, the media attracts more attention, and it attracts more people. The argument presented in this article is directly related to the topic of what role the media plays in disseminating information regarding science and health-related issues. The media and health issues after disasters includes events such as the 9/11 and 1995 Oklahoma City bombing how it affected the health of many people exposed to the media showing the disasters, and media hypes and risk amplification. The 9/11 attacks are reported as a trigger of memory to recall. “In the aftermath of the September11, 2001, attacks, four studies demonstrated associations between viewing television coverage of the attacks and post-traumatic stress symptomatology” (Vasterman). The media kept showing the disaster that happened on the television that caused post-traumatic stress disorder due to people viewing the images of people falling and jumping from the towers. The 1995 Oklahoma City bombing the influence of the media had a particular concern because the publicity shows the effect of terrorist actions. When it comes to risk amplification, the media works in different modes, that they can follow easily. The leading role is the social structure that causes the problem after disasters, it creates a specific perspective. The media have a huge impact on the way the disasters works and the risk issues involved in certain situations that are perceived by the public as well as other authorities.
The mass media concern in science has remained steady throughout the 19th century until now. The media outlets in many countries only pass science writing as medicine or health. In this article, the author includes that science journalists in the world cannot determine what is true, objectivity which demands the reporter to go into a neutral transmitter mode and focus not on the validity rather on accuracy. Dunwoody contends that both scientists and science journalists should put on a large premium on the accuracy of their science stories. For example, a study that asks the sources to identify inaccurate media science in order to find perceived flaws and errors of omission.
The argument presented in this article is directly related to my topic of media because it provides an in-depth example demonstrating how media provides misinformation regarding science/ health-related issues. The media always tend to send out the false information, or a misinformation in order to get a reaction from an audience. False information continues to influence beliefs and attitudes even after an explanation is given. The historical evolution of science journalism, in particular referencing to the United States and the moves to the characteristics of today’s science journalists. Including journalism and media outlets. Moreover, the coverage of science is a topic that interests many journalists due to the research is done and commentary.
The media’s that we tend to look for news such as Facebook and google end up clamping down fake news about a health issue that will have a significant impact on people. The society doesn’t realize the information that they access maybe false rather they look for the what to do to prevent certain things from happening. People have ways to make misinformation tend to be true due the facts being added. These stories post as serious journalism and do not fade away in thin air rather they become means for some writers that make money from them and potentially influence the public opinion. In an analysis of health stories mostly highlighted in local news are those of health problems, and most likely to affect viewers, or the audience that it’s supposed to attract. Science belittle suggestions that rely on mediated channels for information about health. The media being the number one source in which people attain their information, people tend to want to find certain information which relates to science.
The media amplify anxiety through exaggeration, prediction and when certain words or images are used to symbolize an item. The swine flu pandemic is an example of how media can cause amplification that may lead to moral panic. The media created moral panic for the people who accessed the news due to swine flu that was spreading around. When the swine flu appeared on the news for the first time, the mass media made it look worse than it was and people were panicking all over the United States.
One of the heading shown on the news was “Swine flu will be the biggest pandemic ever, warns world health chief’’ (Geraldino).
In conclusion, the conception of public communication of science implies the to the changes of opinion among people, and the public in general. The social problem with the public communication is that it’s been a long tradition that it impacts everyone and no one seems to question if the information is really accurate and evidence why the results indicate this. The media role in disseminating information to the society has increased risks in people health after each seeing the aftermath over and over, and ends up having trauma afterwards. Media tends to always send misinformation when it comes to topics or thing related with people’s health such as diseases spreading and so on. When the society see’s such report on the news with headlines indicating that they need to take precautions or take action, this causes amplification such as panic or concern among each other.