The Definition And Structure Of Bacteria

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Bacteria are a type of biological cell. They are microscopic, single celled organisms that can live anywhere. They can reside in the ocean, soil and in human gut. Humans have a relationship with bacteria that is both parasitic and symbiotic. Bacteria are single celled organisms that lack nucleus but have DNA enclosed in a nucleoid or in plasmids. Bacterial cells are generally surrounded by two protective coverings: an outer cell wall and an inner membrane. Some bacteria have flagella which they use to move towards the host.

The human body can be easily be prone to bacterial infections when a person has a weak immune system. The immune system is weakened by a virus and this gives a chance to harmless bacteria to become pathogenic and cause diseases. Bacteria are evolving in a manner that some bacteria now are resistant to antibiotics, which makes them hard to treat. And since no antibiotics can fight and stop them, they spread and cause further damage to the human body.

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Some bacteria cause diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and obesity. Bad bacteria create an environment that allows and leads to diseases. Bad bacteria can grow at low levels and cause no harm to the body or they can grow too much and wreak havoc. P. gingivalis cause gum disease. Klebsiella pneumonia can cause colitis which leads to colorectal cancer. Disease causing bacteria can cause body to suffer from constant inflammation when bacteria enters body tissue it leads to infection. Clostridium tentani can cause tetanus infection. Some produce toxins that cause infection.

Streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus pneumoniae causes pneumonia and meningitis. Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes tuberculosis. Vibrio cholerae causes cholera. Salmonella enterica causes salmonellosis and typhoid fever. Shigella causes shigellosis. Campylobacter causes gastroenteritis.

REFERENCES

  1. Eckburg, P.B., et al. (2005) Diversity of the human intestinal microbial flora. Science. 308: 1635-1638
  2. Bry, L, et al. (1996) A model of host microbial interactions in open mammalian ecosystem. Science. 273: 1380-1383
  3. Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H., et al. (2011) The role of gut microbiota (commensal bacteria) and the mucosal barrier in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases and cancer: contribution of germ-free and gnotobiotic animal models of human disease. Cell Mol Immunol. 8: 110-120.
  4. Saleh, M. and G. Trinchieri (2011) Innate immune mechanisms of colitis and colitis associated colorectal cancer. Nat Rev Immunol, 11:9-20.
  5. Fox, J.G., et al. (2011) helicobacter hepaticus infection in mice: models for understanding lower bowel inflammation and cancer. Mucosal Immunol. 4:22-30.
  6. Backhed, F. (2010) 99th Dahlem conference on infection, inflammation, and chronic inflammatory disorders: the normal gut microbiota in health and disease. Clin Exp Immunol. 160:80-84
  7. www.microbiologyinpictures.com & www.bacteriainphotos.com
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