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The Determinants Of Child Labour In Pakistan

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Child labour is a world practice and has many bad outcomes. According to the International Labour Organization, child labour is the vital source of child exploitation and child abuse in the world today. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan has estimated the range of Pakistani working youth to be round 11-12 millions, out of which, at least, half the youth are underneath the age of ten years.

Haneef, an eleven 12 months old child, labored in a carpet weaving, manufacturing facility for 12-16 hours a day, seven days a week. He supported his household in paying off old loans, which his family had taken years in the past from their village landlord to survive. However, he used to be never informed who in his household had borrowed the cash or how much. His parents came to go to him and to gain the money from the proprietor of the factory for whom Haneef worked, however he not knew the amount or how long he would have to precede working. Any time he made an error in his work, for which he charged and the load of the debt increased. Once, when his work was very slow, he was badly beaten. On any other occasion, after a painful beating, Haneef tried to run away, however was complained through the area police and was later back to the loom’s owner.

This situation of child labour is frequent in Pakistan and is frequently ignored; which depicts the society’s attitudes toward child care. This paper analyzes the determinants of child labour in the Pakistani context and its implications for the life of children, in specific, and for the nation.

Amongst many, one factor that helps us decide quality of any society is “How properly it cares for its children”. Unfortunately, in our part of the world the scenario is different because here youth are restricted to emerge as a field of the labour market being victimized to the hostile environment. Children are engaged in work that is harmful, hazardous and/or exploitative, such as slavery, trafficking, debt bondage, prostitution, pornography and different illicit activities.


Before watching the determinants, it is essential to have an overview of the mannequin that as a framework for in-depth analysis of the issue. The model was added via Clemen-stone, McGuire in 1991. It summarizes the number of parameters the fitness care carriers may want to observe while analyzing the fitness reputation of any community. It comprises physical, social and ethical elements of well-being which clinked with health care delivery system, human beings and environment aid characteristics that impact a community’s nation of being. If there are changes in any one component, it alters the balance of fitness in the community setting. This framework permits health care providers to examine a specific community and then put into effect consequently to gain the applicable outcome.

Determinants of Child Labour

Keeping in mind that South East Asia is amongst the fastest growing economies in the region, it has an excessive poverty level. They also debate it that poverty is no longer the only motive; however, discrimination based on caste, gender, tribal, non secular motives is additionally contributing factors.

The issue receives more extreme in the absence of a high-quality social security system, and varieties the groundwork of an even harsher kind of child labour, the as referred to as bonded labour.

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There are laws legal guidelines planned by the Government of Pakistan, each as the section of its constitution and at other organizational levels mentioning, that compelled labour resulting in disability or kidnapping, sexual abuse, and torture is severely punishable with the maximum penalty up to life imprisonment. Such as Factories Act, 1934; West Pakistan Shops and Establishment Ordinance; The Employee Children Act, 1991; The Bonded Labour System Abolition Act, 1992; and the Punjab Compulsory Education Act 1994; However, the most essential hassle is the implementation of these laws; and as ordinances. The so known as imposing companies have failed to efficaciously put in force these laws; As a result, this issue of child labour stays unresolved.

Another indicator of negligence by using the worried businesses is that there are no enforcement records available: Pakistan lacks a nice management statistics gadget related to child labour which may want to grant reliable quantitative data on the quantity of working children. Regarding child labour legislation, “Articles 3, 11(1-3), 17(1) and 37(C) are there in the Constitution of Pakistan to ensure removal of child labour.”

In such a society where a child’s adolescence is seldom respected, the problem of low-cost employment makes the trouble even greater complex. In a financial system, the place there is a war to compete by using decreasing labour costs; child labour prevails.

According to the findings of a current survey conducted at Peshawar, they revealed it those 150 youngsters among which 120 had been working in automobile workshops for 8-10 hours besides any protection measures. It ages most of the teenagers working in this enterprise between 8-14 years, which is honestly now not an appropriate age for performing these sorts of worrying jobs. We have found these youths to be struggling from health problems due to working in unsafe, polluted environments for long time durations which led to their serious health complications.

It has also to be taken into account that child function extraordinary tasks than adults in the same occupation and, consequently their exposure to hazardous retailers may also differ. In Lahore, they had surveyed 84 metal furnaces and spare parts. Amongst them, 27% of the personnel engaged in these sectors comprising children; and were struggling from headache, sore throat, nasal irritation and skin rashes.

Agriculture was once determined to be the most dangerous occupation open to children in Pakistan which brought about excessive charges of injury whilst working with knives, sharp tools, and other heavy equipment. About 100,000 children suffered agriculture-related accidents in Pakistan annually.


The problem of child labour in the 0.33 world international locations is not solely economic however is additionally a socio-economic problem which can be addressed with adopting certain measures for enhancing the financial conditions of the community and enabling it to supply schooling and amusement time to the children. At the equal time, it requires due diligence in high quality implementation of child labour legislation. Perhaps abrupt eradication or demolishing child labour may additionally not be the clarification of Pakistan, where poverty is the root motive of many troubles because by doing so these children may also ease up in other extra damaging professions such as drug trafficking, and sex workers; to earn their livelihood. However, provision of training alongside with work would help these teens so that we can outfit them with necessary capabilities and in future they would be better able to work in a contributive environment. I wish a multidisciplinary approach to work on the satisfactory of a working child, and therefore, as health care personnel, we ought to replicate and work jointly to fight this issue.


  1. Child labour. (Online) 2009 (Cited 2006 Nov 11). Available from URL:
  2. Child labour remains a complex issue in Pakistan. 2008. International the news. (Online) 2009 (Cited 2009 May 25). Available from URL: – 34k.
  3. Child labour: Position statement. (Online) 2007 (Cited 2005 Nov 2). Available from URL:
  4. Clemen-stone S, McGuire SL. Comprehensive Family and Community Health Nursing. St. Louis: Mosby, 1991.

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The Determinants Of Child Labour In Pakistan. (2021, August 19). Edubirdie. Retrieved February 4, 2023, from
“The Determinants Of Child Labour In Pakistan.” Edubirdie, 19 Aug. 2021,
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