The Effect Of pH On Enzyme Action
- Words: 1237
- Pages: 3
- This essay sample was donated by a student to help the academic community. Papers provided by EduBirdie writers usually outdo students' samples.
Enzymes are proteins that act as catalysts within living cells. Catalysts increase the rate at which chemical reactions occur without being consumed or permanently altered themselves by lowering their activation energy (Christensen, 2018). Every enzyme has a region called active site, where enzymes are binds to a substrate to create another enzyme and carries a reaction. Enzyme is important because it’s a metabolic pathway in the body like respiration, building muscle, destroying toxins, and breaking down food particles during digestion (Roland, 2018). Without enzymes, these reactions would take place too slowly to keep living organisms alive. Additionally, factors like the concentration of the enzyme, temperature, pH, and the presence of inhibitors can affect the overall performance of an enzyme.
Catalase is a very common enzyme that is present in almost all organisms that are exposed to oxygen. The purpose of catalase in living cells is to protect them from oxidative damage (Augustyn, 2019). As catalase can
catalyse the decomposition of harmful superoxide radicals into oxygen and water. Scientifically, each and every enzyme is characterized by an optimum PH. At this specific pH level, a particular enzyme catalyses the reaction at the fastest rate. Any change in this pH significantly affects the enzyme activity and/or the rate of reaction (Gillespie, 2018). In human, catalase works only between pH 7 and pH 11. If the pH level is lower than 7 or higher than 11, the enzyme becomes denatured and loses its structure (Gillespie, 2018).
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate if higher PH range would increase the active rate of enzyme catalse in hydrogen peroxide, as measured by the amount of oxygen released. In the experiment, different PH range of 4,7, 10 will be tested on potato cores in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). It was hypothesised that higher PH level will cause greater reaction on the enzyme activity mixed with H2O2. This is because catalase works best at high levels of substrate concentration and PH levels, therefore the higher the concentrations of each variable, the more oxygen will be produced when molecules of hydrogen peroxide are free (Brooker et al., 2008).
The original experiment was to determine the relationship between surface area and the rate of oxygen produced when different sized potato cores were placed in Hydrogen Peroxide over one minute. It was hypothesised that the potato that has been cut into the smallest pieces will have the largest surface area and cause a greater reaction (produce more oxygen). This statement was proven truthful after the experiment. In the result table, it was evident that the potatoes with the largest surface area (grind ones) had the greatest amount of oxygen produced at an average of 6.1cm. Follow by the quarters (3.5cm), the thirds (3.05cm) and lastly the half (3cm). The is because potato core with the large surface area will contain more catalase molecules coming in contact with the reacting substrate and hydrogen peroxide. Which means if more of an enzyme is exposed (meaning larger surface area) a greater number of active sites will be available to react with the hydrogen peroxide. Thus, produce more oxygen.
In the original experiment, numerous amounts of limitation and error was identified. Those include, the size of the potato cores was not even, the way that liquid and the level of reaction was not measured accurately and more. These errors had a significant impact on the rate of reaction and the reliability of the result. In order to ensure more precise and sufficient data was collected, the original experiment was changed to keep all size of the potato cores the same but changing the range of PH. As all potato cores are the same, therefore it will contain the same amount of catalase. Which minuses the impact to the rate of reaction and the results can be compared more efficiently. Furthermore, more reliable data was determined and improved by using correct measuring technique and equipment. Overall, most of the limitation and error in the original experiment has been minimised and fixed.
The graphs above has indicated a relationship between the PH range and the enzyme activity. It was shown that higher PH level will cause a greater impact on the enzyme activity. This is because as the PH level increase there will be a higher concentration of enzyme , which means there is a greater chance of an effective collision between the enzyme, hydrogen peroxide and molecules. In both graphs, the maximum rate of reaction occurred in PH 10 at 9.1cm and the minimum rate had occurred in PH 4 at 7.4cm. When higher PH level react with enzyme, it will cause a greater amount of oxygen released. For example, the amount of oxygen increased averagely 14% in PH 10, then 12.1% in PH 7 and lastly 12.8% in PH 4. Aside from that, the height of oxygen had only increased 0.5 cm between PH 4 and 7 but 0.85cm between PH 7 and 10. Which evident that PH 10 is the optimal PH level for enzyme as it has the maximum amount of oxygen produced, meaning higher enzyme activity. Additionally, the standard deviation error bar does not overlap each other in either the line or bar graph. This specified the fact that there may be a significant difference of PH range on enzyme activity. Overall, trend and pattern shown in both graphs was expected.
After the experiment, all the data and results were carefully examined to ensure reliability and validity. Numerous amounts of factors that result in uncertainty or limitation were observed. During the experimental process, the temperature is considered to be another factor that could control and affect the enzyme catalase. High or low temperature can change the shape of the active site and cause a significant impact on enzyme activity. This will then lead to a process called denaturation, where enzyme catalase is dissolved. This uncertainty could reduce the validity of the results as the temperature could possibly be the major factor that has a greater impact on enzyme activity, instead of the PH range.
However, when examining the graphs, it was obvious that the standard deviation error bar is small. This suggests that the mean value was represented accurately in the data set, which leads to proving that the results are reliable. Additionally, this could be explained by the number of repeats that was done to ensure validity. When comparing the data from four trials for each PH, it was clear that the values for all PH range were very close together. Which evident that there is not an outlier or anomaly shown in the result table.
In the past 20 years, various enzyme preparations have been used in meat processing. The common points of enzyme preparations are: strong professionalism and can be carried out under mild conditions; low cost and energy consumption in processing; significant changes in meat properties and meat quality improvement; high production efficiency; No harmful ingredients remain in the meat. The usage of nine enzyme preparations for meat processing is introduced for reference. Transglutaminase Currently there is more production in Europe and the...
With the rapid development of the dairy cattle breeding industry and the dairy industry, the output of raw milk and dairy products has increased significantly, the variety of dairy products has been greatly enriched, and the quality has also made a qualitative leap. High and new technologies such as gene technology, enzyme technology, microbial technology, high-pressure technology, and cold sterilization technology are also increasingly used in dairy production. Enzymes are proteins with catalytic functions produced by living cells, and they...
Application in dairy products Lactose is a disaccharide found in mammalian milk and has low sweetness and solubility. Dietary lactose can improve the body’s absorption of Ca, P, Mg and other essential trace elements, but it cannot be directly absorbed in the small intestine, and must be hydrolyzed by the small intestine to be digested and absorbed by the body. β-D-galactosidase, also known as lactase, is a odorless, light brown and non-toxic biological enzyme preparation after dissolution. The enzyme can...
Enzyme is a protein molecule that takes on a particular shape which enables them to speed up biochemical reactions within the organisms, therefore behaving as a catalyst. It can also be used in industrial and medical contexts. Bread making, cheese making and beer brewing all depend on the activity on enzymes, and enzymes can be inhibited if their environment is too acidic or too basic. The rate of action of an enzyme is highly dependent on many key variables, including...
A biological enzyme is a non-toxic, harmless, and environmentally friendly biological catalyst. Biological enzymes have great advantages in the textile printing and dyeing industry. To speed up the development of various biological enzyme preparations, solve some problems in textile printing and dyeing, reduce as much as possible the decline in fiber strength and low efficiency of enzyme preparations, develop high temperature resistant enzyme species, expand the scope of protease applications, and accelerate China’s textile printing and dyeing Industrial technological transformation....
Multi-enzyme feed is a type of biological feed. This kind of feed is rich in a variety of feed enzymes, which can eliminate the anti-nutritional components in feed ingredients to a certain extent or play a supplementary role in animal endogenous enzymes. Therefore, it is beneficial to improve the quality of the existing feed and increase the utilization rate of the feed. Based on the relevant data at home and abroad, we reviewed the types and functions of common feed...
Introduction In our society, using enzymes or microorganisms in food preparation has become widely known. As new technology has been developed, new application fields have been developed and pioneered. Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and the other enzymes are highly used for improving the taste and texture and eventually obtain enormous economic benefits to industries. With the advancement of technology, the use of recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to produce new enzymes suitable for specific food processing conditions....
Oceans provide 90 percent of living space on our planet Earth by volume and about 95 percent of this enormous area is still unseen by humans. (1) This huge area holds infinite opportunities with a massive diversity of organisms. The plants, animals and all the other microorganisms, even the tiniest ones that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean or brackish water or coastal estuaries are altogether known as marine life. (2) As the conditions of living...
Abstract The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the glucose concentration in popular drinks coke and Gatorade and to identify how a changing environment can impact the hydrolysis of sucrose. This was examined by a series of mutli- enzymatic reactions of glucose resulting in NADPH, measured by a spectrophotometer at 340nm. The results showed the glucose concentration of coke 2.30 g/100ml and Gatorade 1.06g/100ml.These results in contrast to advertised nutritional values of glucose didn’t correspond as they were lower...
01 / 09
Fair Use Policy
EduBirdie considers academic integrity to be the essential part of the learning process and does not support any violation of the academic standards. Should you have any questions regarding our Fair Use Policy or become aware of any violations, please do not hesitate to contact us via email@example.com.
We are here 24/7 to write your paper in as fast as 3 hours.