The Crusades were a number of religious wars between Christians and Muslims. They were started because both groups wanted to keep a site that is considered sacred or holy to them. The Crusades took place between 1096 and 1291. These gory, dangerous, and ruthless battles brought up the status of European Christians, making them large influences in the fight for land in the Middle East.
There were eight major Crusade expeditions that took place. The first Crusade was made up of four different Crusade armies from different Western European Regions, they departed for Byzantium in August 1096. The Second Crusade happened after the fall of the Christian established settlement, Edessa, had fallen because of Muslim attacks, so they led another Crusade. The Third Crusade began in 1887 because of a protest against the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. The Fourth Crusade was called for in 1198 but because of power seeking conflicts between Europe and Byzantium it ended in the fall of Constantinople. The Fifth Crusade began because of the Pope at the time in 1216 the Crusaders attacked Egypt but had to surrender to the Muslim attackers because of Saladins nephew in 1221. The Sixth Crusade took place in 1229 ,Emperor Fredrick II achieved control of Jerusalem through negotiation with Crusaders. From 1248 to 1254 France organized a crusade against Egypt, this is known as the Seventh Crusade. The Eight Crusade was when Louis IX of France launched an attack on the city of Tunis in 1270, this was seen as a failure crusade because Louis died shortly after reaching Tunisia.
While the Crusades mainly resulted in defeat over Europeans and a Muslim victory, many people argue that they also extended the reach of Christianity and Western civilization. Trade and transportation also improved throughout Europe after the Crusades. But, to followers of Islam the Crusaders were seen as morally wrong, gory, and brutal. The Crusades also affect people’s political and cultural views today.
Some other long term effects the Crusades had on the Middle East were even global. A Global Trade Power came from the Crusades. During the time of the Crusades the Arab Muslim traders were leading in trade of spices, silk, porcelain, and jewels that flowed through China and India. Scholars have translated the works of the great thinkers from India and China at the time to improve their knowledge on things such as algebra, astronomy, and medical innovations. They also helped create the rise of the Italian trading cities of Venice and Genoa.
Some effects of the Crusades on the West Europe culture were, the authority of the King and new things that they learned from Muslims. This affected the authority of the King because when Nobles would die in battle without leaving an heir to their land. So, the King would get their land. The King then passed taxes for the Crusades and so the Nobles would have to sell their land often to pay them. Also, when a peasant died in battle the kind would get their land too. In the end, the Kings gained lots of land and money which grew their power. Also, the things they learned from the Muslims helped change their culture in the future. They learned how to build sail, ships, and use magnetic compasses. They also witnessed new things to trade while on Crusade like silk, cotton, spices, and new forms of art and literature. Overall, the impact on Europe was tremendous it increased trade globally and lead to the rise of the merchant class.