The Evolution Of Biology

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This is an analysis summary the will discuss the evolution and analysis of biology, containing summary containing the following themeshemes as-is:Medicine:Families and Medicine;Foundation of Natural Science: Evidence based Medicine, Centers of Study, and the Growing Bodies and Knowledge;Transmission of Species: Studies and Specifies, Containment Procedures, Correcting Data;Drinkable Milk:Start, Procedure,Finish Product;and the Pediatrics Studies: Professional,Pioneers of the Study,Benefit to Women;. Some of the researchers that the author will be using will be Charles Darwin, Jean-Baptise Lamarck, Gregor Johann Mendel, Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus, and Abraham Jacobi. The time periods that will be used in this analysis summary 300 B.C. to the late 1900’s. Therefore, the author wrote this paper to go into detail about the start of biology and how did it change the world.The sources that will be used to conduct this essay will be from JSTOR. This paper is proposed to disclose the evolution of biology as a medical field and who helped shape it.

In this analysis paper, the author will be going into the past and describing the evolution of biology and who contributed to it. The famous researchers the author will be using is Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (who was a biologist that also believed that spices would change into new species over time), Abraham Jacobi(he was the first pediatrician in the United States of America), Charles Darwin(he was known for his contributions to the evolution of biology), Gregor Johan Mendel(founder of the modern science of genetics) ,Professor Mark Thomas( Invented Drinkable milk) ,Elizabeth Blackwell(First pediatrician that was a woman) Louis Pasteur(Discovered Drinkable Milk)and Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus(practiced medicine and science research). The events that will be described is the term medicine and how the work came to be, The Foundation of Natural Science, and the Transmutation of Species, The Discovery of Drinkable Milk and The Pediatric Studies.

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The periods that will also be talked about is the dates ranging from the early 1800s to the late 1900s. The term medicine was invented in 1500BC.The foundation of natural science was discovered in the 1600 BC.The Transmutation of Species was studied in 1859.Drinkable Milk was discovered in 1862.And The Pediatricas Studies was started in 1933. Since the author is pursuing a degree in biology, she thought this would be a good way to explore how biology came to be. She wants to know how her career came to be in the field of biology and how it changed the world of biology.

When a drug is first discovered, it is given a chemical name, which describes the atomic or molecular structure of the drug.So they name medicine based on what is in there and how it was made.All that was most effective, according to this theory, was retained and improved upon during this ascent, while discarded and obsolete ideas and practices drifted “downward” and were preserved in the “lower layers” of culture (somewhat tautologically identified by their difference from or incongruence with the social class and cultural heritage membership of those who articulated the theory). They improved medicine even though it was preserved for the lower layers aka social class.Generic names are usually more complicated and harder to remember than brand names. Many generic names are a shorthand version of the drug’s chemical name, structure, or formula.They prefer to use use generic names than name brands because genertic are easier to remember.

Foundation of Medicine Science

Evidence based medicine

Evidence-based medicine is presented as a solution for two of contemporary medicine's major concerns: (1) the quality of healthcare and (2) cost control.They made this a solution because people were confused as to what and how things were supposed to be in the medicine field.Because these protocols and guidelines purport to tell professionals how to conduct their work,they remain controversial among clinicians (Timmermans and Berg 2003a)It helped them stay organized and in control of what they do within their working fields.. Patients do not know what is wrong with them and therefore have to rely on a technically qualified physician for treatment and legitimation of their devian.Meaning that they are dependent on there doctors and nurses to know what their doing which refers back to the protocols and guidelines of their work to make sure its correct.The very foundations-the first principles of all living nature, the exact differences between the living and the non-living state-have still to be established.Meaning that since they haven't really researched it is still to be determined the differences between living and non-living state of human beings. How can a man hope to rightly comprehend that most complicated of all machines, the human body, with its levers, pumps,and elastic canals, unless he be first furnished with the principles of mechanics and hydraulics? In the previous sentence the author compares a human body to a car by using car parts to describe the body.Meaning you can't just start working on a human body without knowing how to work and fix in the parts without breaking them.So you would need some kind of training in order to do something so major like that. Without the principles of chemistry we should be intellectually lost in the human laboratory, and unable to employ chemical agencies in the treatment of disease and electricity is so correlated with the other physical sciences, and of so much service both in diagnosis and treatment, that its separate studly has also become essential.So it's a necessity to know the principles of chemistry to understand the human body and cure them of any diseases to help them heal and stay alive.

Louis Pasteur

At the time, not much attention was paid to food hygiene. Meat products might be infected with anthrax, and dairy products with a variety of bacteria. Milk itself often contained the bacilli of bovine tuberculosis, or Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Before Louis Pasteur ever invented the pasteurization people were eating and drinking food and milk without caring about the effects.It was until a three year old boy died from drinking unpasteurized milk. The death of a three-year-old child caused by drinking unpasteurised milk late last year invited much commentary about food safety and regulation. He died because due to unpasteurized milk and his weak immune system. So Pastur decided to do something about it. In 1908, Chicago became the first municipality to demand compulsory pasteurisation, while Ontario, in 1938, demanded milk be pasteurised throughout the province. Every since then more and more people died it was best to pasteurize milk so that wont happen again.In some places, unpasteurised milk was never banned. Unlike Australia, where unpasteurised milk must be labelled a cosmetic product, in England and Wales it remains a matter of choice.Some countries decided to ban unpasteurized milk while others thought it was a choice. But who would want to drink unpasteurized milk.


According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), from 1993 through 2012, there were 127 outbreaks linked to raw milk or raw milk products like ice cream, soft cheese, or yogurt. They resulted in 1,909 illnesses and 144 hospitalizations. CDC points out that most foodborne illnesses are not part of recognized outbreaks, and for every illness reported, many others occur.They purified the milk because raw milk is full of unhealthy bacteria that can lead to illness and sometimes death.Raw milk can carry dangerous bacteria such as Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, Campylobacter, and others that cause foodborne illness, often called “food poisoning.”However, Food poison is curable but nobody likes to get food poisoning so to solve this they purifies the milk.These bacteria can seriously injure the health of anyone who drinks raw milk or eats products made from raw milk. However, the bacteria in raw milk can be especially dangerous to people with weakened immune systems (such as transplant patients and individuals with HIV/AIDS, cancer, and diabetes), children, older adults, and pregnant women. In fact, CDC finds that foodborne illness from raw milk especially affects children and teenagers.Most people have weak immune systems since birth which can cause illnesses to spread throughout their whole body and cause internal damage.

Finished Product

In order to make sure the milk is safe to consume they must first pasteurize it. The milk starts off by being heated to up to 145 degrees for about 30 minutes. Its temperature is then increased to 160 degrees for only a few seconds. The temperature and time varies to destroy mycobacterium tuberculosis and other microorganisms that may cause disease. It also makes it last longer so that it doesn't spoil allowing you to refrigerate and keep it for longer. Another type of pasteurization includes the use of higher temperatures. The milk is warmed to 300 degrees and packaged in material that it allows it to be stored for months without refrigeration extending its freshness to 2 or three more months.

Pediatrics Studies


One explanation for the movement's origins is that demand for treating sick children was eroding; primary-care providers took up the delivery of behavioral services to avoid extinction.Meaning that since children were getting sicker and sicker they demanded that doctors to provide help for the children. Also Pediatrics took on the professional supervision of healthy children during the 1920s and 1930s when it established itself as a division of primary care medicine (Halpern 1988).Every since then the pediatric world changed for the better of the children.In the 1980s they took practical steps to encourage the treatment of behavioral disorders, such as temper tantrums, bed wetting, sleep disturbances, and discipline problems, in community pediatrics.The pediatricians did more than just checked the patient's temperature or their height. They broaden their skills so they can do more than what they already know how to do.The wanted to know how to help them mental and socially, they wanted to go deeper into the normal problems “Well maybe their just bad”,. They wanted to figure out how they became ‘bad” becasue it does not just happen overnight.They wanted to explore the problems deeper so they did more research and they figured it out.

Pioneers of the Study

In the twentieth century, immunizations, antibiotics, and public health initiatives have combined to lower the infant mortality rate and lengthening the life span.They created medicine to help with the death rate with was sky rocket in the early 1920’s. By doing this they saved a lot of children from getting the common and both deadly diseases known to man. For instance,children have rapid respiratory rates compared to adults,thus increasing their absorption of aerosolized chemical or biological agents. Which means to say that children have a greater probability to get sicker than adults due to their weaker immune systems. Which leads to a higher death rate if not prevented by antibiotics.Dr. Jacobi occupied the first chair for the diseases of children in the United States. His first book was a treatise on the diseases of women and children, prepared in cooperation with Dr. Emil Noeggeratt, and published in 1859. This was followed by other volumes and monographs, mainly concerned with the diseases of children, but also treating cancer, diphtheria and intestinal diseases.He studied the research for the children's most common diseases and how to prevent them.Dr.Jacobi also helped shape the pediatrics world by opening up a pediatrics lab to educate and explore more disease and teach future pediatricians.

Benefits to Women

Elizabeth Blackwell, the-first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States, had founded both a hospital and a medical school for women-the New York Infirmary for Women and Children-where Jacobi had been an attending physician and professor of materia medica and therapeutics since 1870. Blackwell opened a lot of doors for the future women pediatricians.Although he faced many obstacles. One being women physicians, by nature of their being physicians, ranged themselves on different sides of the controversies shared by their medical brethren. Yet by virtue of their being women, they also faced dilemmas from which their male colleagues were spared. Most of these centered around the fact of their womanhood and its meaning with regard to their larger connection with the profession.They struggled to be accepted into the profession because they didn't believe that women could handle it.But is not the idea of a female practitioner, such as we have outlined, lamentably ridiculous? Imagine the Semiramis of surgery, a Fergusson in woman's outward guise, amputating a thigh, or removing a diseased jaw or elbow-joint, aided by as sistants of like sex and mind, and surrounded by a host of fair damsels, who regard the proceedings of the operator with that appreciation of the cool head and the ready hand which medical students so well know how to feel.


  1. Room For The Ladies! Source: The British Medical Journal, Vol. 1, No. 119 (Apr. 9, 1859), pp. 292-294 Published by: BMJ
  2. Morantz, Regina Markell. 'Feminism, Professionalism, and Germs: The Thought of Mary Putnam Jacobi and Elizabeth Blackwell.' Professional and White-Collar Employments. doi:10.1515/9783110979091.105.
  3. Garrison, F. H. 'Dr. Abraham Jacobi (1830-1919).' Science 50, no. 1283 (08, 1919): 102-04. doi:10.1126/science.50.1283.102.
  4. Halpern, Sydney A. 'Medicalization as Professional Process: Postwar Trends in Pediatrics.' Journal of Health and Social Behavior 31, no. 1 (03 1990): 28. doi:10.2307/2137043.
  5. Ringel, Jeanne, Anita Chandra, Malcolm Williams, Karen Ricci, Alexandria Felton, David Adamson, Margaret Weden, and Meilinda Huang. 'Enhancing Public Health Emergency Preparedness for Special Needs Populations: A Toolkit for State and Local Planning and Response.
  6. Chapter Title: Understanding Folk Medicine Chapter Author(s): Bonnie B. O’Connor and David J. Hufford Book Title: Healing Logics Book Subtitle: Culture and Medicine in Modern Health Belief Systems Book Editor(s): Erika Brady Published by: University Press of Colorado, Utah State University Press. (2001)
  7. Evidence-Based Medicine and the Reconfiguration of Medical Knowledge Author(s): Stefan Timmermans and Emily S. Kolker Source: Journal of Health and Social Behavior, Vol. 45, Extra Issue: Health and Health Care in the United States: Origins and Dynamics (2004), pp. 177-193 Published by: American Sociological Association
  8. The Foundations of Medical Science Author(s): Lionel S. Beale Source: Science, New Series, Vol. 2, No. 46 (Nov. 15, 1895), pp. 644-651 Published by: American Association for the Advancement of Science
  9. Science and Medicine Source: Science, Vol. 2, No. 71 (Nov. 5, 1881), pp. 521-522 Published by: American Association for the Advancement of Science
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