The Fundamentals Of Molecular Biotechnology

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The basic concepts of the fundamental units of life, encompassing DNA replication, transcription and gene regulation are studied in molecular biotechnology. Other vital biological phenomena such as transformation, conjugation transduction, recombination and horizontal gene transfer are also discussed here.

Simply, molecular biology responsible for transmission is the understanding of mechanism and expression of genetic information that ultimately governs cell structure and function.

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Emergence of Molecular biotechnology

The timeline of biotechnology is classified into three stages:

  • Ancient biotechnology
  • Classical biotechnology
  • Modem biotechnology

Most of the development in the ancient period before 1800 can be termed as discoveries or developments; we can conclude that these inventions were based on common. Observations about nature, which could be put to test for the betterment of human life at that point in time.

The classical period of biotechnology is the second phase of evolution and development of biotechnology. This phase existed from 1800 to almost the middle of the twentieth century During this period, observation were used to find scientific evidences which pare the path for new discoveries.

After the end of the Second World War, some very crucial discoveries were reported, which pared the path for modern biotechnology and its current status.

  • 1952 - DNA proven to be the genetic molecule
  • 1958 - DNA's double-helix structure established
  • 1956 - First oligonucleotide synthesized
  • 1958 - Semi conservative DNA replication demonstrated, DNA polymerase isolated
  • 1959 - mRNA identified as the protein intermediate between DNA and
  • 1961 - First genetic codon identified in vitro protein, translation demonstrated
  • 1965 - First nucleic acid sequence published
  • 1966 - The genetic code is cracked.
  • 1949 - First principles of PCR proposed T. Aquaticus DNA polymerase isolated
  • 1970 - First restriction enzyme isolated. First fully synthesized gene.
  • 1971 - First in vitro DNA replication.
  • 1972 - Recombinant DNA invented
  • 1977 - First complete genome sequenced. Alternative mRNA splicing discovered
  • 1981 - First transgenic mouse line development.
  • 1982 - First FDA approval of recombinant DNA drug.
  • 1983 - Invention of PCR
  • 1984 - First chimeric monoclonal antibodies developed
  • 1987 - First crime suspect convicted based on DNA fingerprinting evidence
  • 1990 - Proposal of digital PCR principles
  • 1991 - Public human genome project begins.
  • 1994 - First genetically engineered food approved
  • 1995 - DNA micro arrays are invented.
  • 1997 - First animal cloned.
  • 1998 - RNA interference discovered.
  • 2000 - The human genome sequence completed
  • 2003 - Full sequencing map of the human genome completed
  • 2006 - Nobel Prize awarded for RNA interference
  • 2010 - MICE qPCR guidelines published. Tolerance function discovered.
  • 2013 - Mature cells first reprogrammed into pluripotent stem cells.

Introduction to Applications of biotechnology in the Medical field

Biotechnology has applications in four major industrial areas, including health care (medical), crop production and agriculture, non-food uses of crops (industrial) and other products. But the primary applications of this technology are in medicine in the production of vaccines and antibiotics, etc.

In the medical field biotechnology is the use of living cells and cell materials to research and produce pharmaceutical and diagnostic products that help treat and prevent human diseases Biotechnology in the medical field is also known as 'Red biotechnology. Applications of Red biotechnology or Medical biotechnology can be categorized into four sections:


1. Insulin production

2. Human growth hormone

3. Human blood clotting

4. Gene Pill

5. Monoclonal antibodies


Gene therapy for diseases

1. Genetic disorders.

  1. Severe combined immune deficiency (ADA -SCID)
  2. Chronic granulomatus disorder (CGD)
  3. Hemophilia

2. Acquired diseases

  1. Cancer
  2. Parkinson's disease
  3. Huntington's disease
  4. Influenza
  5. HIV
  6. Hepatitis


  1. Bone marrow transplants
  2. Replacing damaged heart tissue.
  3. Replacing damaged nerve tissue


  1. Creating artificial skin.
  2. Artificial cartilage
  3. Artificial bone marrow.

Current status and role of biotechnology

A wide range of different branches of biotechnology have significant contributions to the fast development of this due to the multidisciplinary nature of biotechnology. Biochemical engineering, physiology, biochemistry, food science, field due to material science, chemical engineering are some of them. A considerable amount of efforts in research arc en, to use and extract benefit from, interesting and upcoming field I for betterment of human life and the environment. Many biochemical companies are involved in the production of biotechnological products using genetic engineering techniques Very recent researches:

  • 16 December 2018 - A new gene therapy strategy, courtesy of nature.
  • 17th December 2014 - Ancient chewing gum yields insight into people and bacteria of the past.
  • 18th December 2019 - Grain traits traced to Dark Matter of Rice genome
  • O8th January 2020 - Pathways that extend lifespan by 500 percent identified.

The above researches shows that the biotechnology in the medical field is with the researches and new inventions, this field plays a great role in benefiting the human life. It has helped to revolutionize mankind since its existence.

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The Fundamentals Of Molecular Biotechnology. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved July 23, 2024, from
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