Table of contents
- Literature review
- Research Questions
This research paper is about the smoking and its effects on our society.The main purpose of writing this paper is to make people aware about that smoking is harmful for themselves and the people around they gather. In Pakistan and other countries smoking causes millions of deaths every year due to lung cancer and other carcinogenic factors. People tend to move toward this bad habit due to depression , anxiety and Other social problems. Due to low literacy rate around the world people don’t know about the factors about smoking and its harmful effects. For this purpose a mixture of qualitative research was carried out. Questionnaires are one of the most affordable ways to gather quantitative and qualitative data. specifically self-administered questionnaires, in which you don’t have to lease surveyors to perform head to head interviews, are a price-efficient manner to speedy accumulate massive amounts of records from a massive variety of people in a tremendously short time frame.. The conclusion which I have drawn from my surveys is that most of the social problems that lead people towards smoking which effects the health of the individual and cause harmful disease like cancer many people may help smokers to some extent to quit smoking.
In this research paper we’re going to discuss about smoking and its problems..The issue which we are going to discuss that how people lead towards this bad habit and what are the alternatives of smoking that eases the mind of the addict by releasing the same amount of carcinogenic factors.
Although many harmful diseases are also caused by smoking which leads to death.The important issue which is to be discussed that how people behave towards a smoker and how individual are going to help smokers to quit smoking. The main objective of this paper is to discuss about the smoking and its most of the effects related to our daily lifestyle. About 1.3 million premature deaths caused by smoking every year in which most people are killed by lung cancer even after quitting smoking it effects the body of smoker and may cause them stroke, mouth cancer and other types of diseases. About each smoking each cigarette reduces the 24 hours of your life and it not only effects you but also effects the people around you in the form of passive smoking.It is more harmful than the actual smoking because carcinogens are directly thrown away into the air passage of the victim. The main cause of this bad habit is caused by the anxiety and other psychological issues in our society and due to this bad habit people started to dislike them furthermore because of this bad habit which changes the behaviour of the people towards them . Smoking is also the main root of all other drugs examples are addict for more satisfaction will go for something with more pleasure and high dose like cocaine, alcohol, meth and many more.
The people tend to develop more interest towards smoking due to low literacy rate. About 55-70% people who are addicted to drugs are illiterate. Education also play a important role in developing the character and self harmony in a person. Many people tend to help smokers to quit this habit and most of them succeeded successfully which is also a good role in helping the people who are addict but the main problem still remains until the individual willing to do it itself.Although smoking is many dangerous and should be stopped by government there should by fine who smokes in public places and effects the health of other people.
Weinberger et al.( 2016) in this article explained about the Smoking related to depression which causes disability, morbidity and many physiological issues around the world . There are many epidemiological data present that tells us about the relationship between smoking and depression. People with depression less likely to quit smoking and find to to meet their nicotine criteria for pleasure and more likely to relapse. I choose this article because it helps us to develop the relations with person which have physiological disorders and why they smoke and harm themselves. However ,the authors ignore the facts that leads the people towards smoking which are homeless, financially unstable , bullying and suddenly smoking is the main root of the all other drugs. So these are the gaps that authors forget to discuss in this article.
Jedrychowski et al.(1992) in this article explained about the risk of lung cancer caused due to smoking and its effect in biological manner which can cause certain damage to cells of the body and cause different types of cancer which are squamous call carcinoma, small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The risk can be increased by smoking large amount of cigarettes.The fact is that it also affects the individual who gave up smoking. I chose this article because it helps to find the information about different types of lung cancer.However, the authors skipped the part in which he had to tell about the deaths from other causes except from lung cancer due to smoking.
Chorti et al.(2012) in this article explained about the effects of electronic and passive tobacco smoking on lung function. Volunteers are asked to participate in a experiment in which some of chose to smoke with e-cigarette while other chose tobacco cigarettes. To study the effects they smoked the cigarettes after smoking of tobacco cigarettes the risk of lung cancer greatly increased and the level of nicotine rises with the evaluation of some chemicals after smoking of e cigarette there was nothing such effect but nicotine level was so high. The purpose of this article is to help us scientifically by giving guidance about the effects of any king of smoking. However, the authors failed to express anything and other diseases rather than lung cancer example it can cause marginal effects and down seizures.
Coleman et al.(2002) in this article explained smokers are very motivated to stop smoking but there are no objective tools to identify their level to stop smoking.The authors tried to investigate the construct validity and inter reliability of smokers motivation code (SMC).
The authors described different methods to stop smoking . The behaviour of patient mostly depends upon past quitting behaviour , self efficacy and many more. The reason of this article is that because authors told us about the willingness to stop smoking by conducting different experiments.However, the author did not mention that these patients requires special treatment from psychological perspective and there should be special centres in which certain teams or individuals help people to drain out from the main causes that lead them towards smoking.
Campion et al.(1994) in this article explained about the evaluation of mass media campaign on smoking and pregnancy.According to authors the campaign was launched in which there were advertisements about the effect of smoking on unborn child. 14% women called the survey to help but there are no other major changes between smoker women and their partners. The reason of this article is to develop sense of humour about the next generation how would they effect us. However, the authors missed the points that campaign wasn’t enough for them to quit smoking there should be proper law and management that monitors the safety guidance of unborn child and smoking should be banned for pregnant women.
- If you see a smoker, is your attitude towards them likely to be different than towards a non smoker?
- What diseases are caused by smoking?
- In your opinion, what reasons contribute the most for someone to pick up smoking?
- Do you think that people contribute in helping smokers quit this habit?
To understand and discover the current situation of smoking a survey was conducted among student to keeping the research questions in mind. This was a mixture of qualitative research . In this research both males and females were present ageing from 18 to 22. The survey indicates about the situation of smoking in society.
According to this survey the huge amount of people which is 45.5% don’t bother their attitude towards a smoker after that 32.5% and 22.% shows negative and positive behaviour towards a smoker respectively. According to recent study which shows that “Smokers placed less emphasis than non-smokers on the health risks associated with smoking. Older Canadians, particularly smokers aged 65 and older, tended to have more lenient attitudes toward smoking, compared with younger age groups. Respondents with high school education or less held more lenient attitudes, compared with those with a university degree. Quebec residents were more tolerant of tobacco use than were residents of other provinces.
In the second question we asked about the most of the people that what disease are caused by the smoking . The data shows that about 57.1% of the participants agreed that all of the above disease are caused by smoking and 41.6% agreed on lung cancer while a minor portion of participants agreed on that smoking cause heart diseases.According to WHO “There is no safe level of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke.
In adults, second-hand smoke causes serious cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, including coronary heart disease and lung cancer. In infants, it raises the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. In pregnant women, it causes pregnancy complications and low birth weight.
Almost half of children regularly breathe air polluted by tobacco smoke in public places. Second-hand smoke causes more than 1.2 million premature deaths per year. 65 000 children die each year from illnesses attributable to second-hand smoke.
In the next question we asked most of the people that is vaping consider healthier option than smoking? According to survey about 20.8% answered that smoking does not have nicotine and tobacco which caused the harmful diseases . Majority of people which is 54.5% of the conducted survey told us that both are social evils and causes problems.About 9.1% do not sure about their information and 15.6% agree that it is safe to use vape for vaping.According to American Heart Association “Many people think vaping is less harmful than smoking. While it’s true that e-cigarette aerosol doesn’t include all the contaminants in tobacco smoke, it still isn’t safe. Here are just a few of the reasons why:
- Most e-cigarettes deliver nicotine, which is highly addictive and can harm the developing brains of teens, kids and foetuses in women who vape while pregnant. Some types expose users to even more nicotine than traditional cigarettes.
- In addition to nicotine, e-cigarette vapour includes potentially harmful substances such as dactyl (a chemical linked to a serious lung disease), cancer-causing chemicals, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and heavy metals such as nickel, tin, and lead. Users breathe in these toxic contaminants, and non-users nearby risk secondhand exposure.
- The liquid used in e-cigarettes can be dangerous, even apart from its intended use. Children and adults have been poisoned by swallowing, breathing or absorbing the liquid through their skin or eyes.
- E-cigarettes have been linked to thousands of cases of serious lung injury, some resulting in death. While the exact cause is still not confirmed, the CDC recommends that people not use e-cigarettes.
In the above question or survey you can see we ask people what are things which are responsible for the smoking.About 75.3% agreed that depression, peer pressure and anxiety are the main social evils which lead people towards smoking.About 18.2% people agreed that depression lead towards smoking and minor amount of participants agreed on anxiety and peer pressure.
In this survey we asked do you think that people help smokers to quit this bad habit.According to survey 19.5% people say yes that they will help smokers to quit this bad habit about 63.6 % agreed to some extent meaning that they help smokers to certain level to quit smoking it most depends upon the will power of the person that the individual really wants to get rid of this bad habit. According to a study the quitting behaviour of the smoker depends upon the past quitting behaviour, self esteem and other methods and about 16.9% people tells us that they won’t help people or addict to stop this bad habit.According to NHS UK “People breathe more easily and cough less when they give up smoking because their lung capacity improves by up to 10% within 9 months.
In your 20s and 30s, the effect of smoking on your lung capacity may not be noticeable until you go for a run, but lung capacity naturally diminishes with age.
In later years, having maximum lung capacity can mean the difference between having an active, healthy old age and wheezing when you go for a walk or climb the stairs.
Over the years smoking has validated damage for our society and one such harm is at psychological degree. Smoking appears to take manage of our mind and make us do illogical things. a few robust smoking human beings are growing becoming risk for their households and a burden on the society. most smokers being at some point of younger age, and this leads to chance taking or rebel later in their lives. Presence of high reputation model and peer additionally leads to encouragement of smoking. smokers say they smoke to relieve the feeling of pressure however in fact they've better strain stage than non-people who smoke. Psychologist Hans Eysenck has developed a persona profile of people who smoke, and Extraversion is trait in smoker in which they have a tendency to be impulsive, sociable and exhilaration searching for individuals (Eysenck, 1965). Psychologists additionally trust that persona and social elements are incredible reasons of smoking. Now it's far obligation of government round the world to do so in opposition to smoking and ban it from public places. Governments around the world need to offer quitting treatments of smoking in distinct society so we will remove the illnesses from our society.
In conclusion smoking is not only dangerous to you but all of the human beings around you. those who smoke have accelerated their hazard of getting coronary heart sicknesses and lung cancer. Smoking is bad dependancy and as soon we can put off smoking it’s higher for humans around us. We have to reduce the range of people who smoke in our society as it destroys our society from its core. it is absolute necessity to fully understand the harms of smoking and prevent it from taking lives of virtuous peoples. The smoking must be quitted via smoker to keep away from monetary losses the harmful consequences of fitness. Smoking strongly contributes to sterility consequently both male and woman ought to discourage it. We recognise almost every disorder that is connected to smoking and inflicting the deaths hence it is time to mention no to harmful outcomes of smoking. At last I want to say that smoking is dangerous for you and your loved ones.
- N, R., & C, P. (1998). Attitudes Toward Smoking. Health Reports. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9926345/
- World. (2018, March 9). Tobacco. Retrieved from Who.int website: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tobacco
- Is Vaping Safer Than Smoking? (2014). Www.Heart.Org. https://www.heart.org/en/healthy-living/healthy-lifestyle/quit-smoking-tobacco/is-vaping-safer-than-smoking
- NHS Choices. (2019). Quit smoking. NHS. https://www.nhs.uk/live-well/quit-smoking/