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The History Of Citizenship And Diaspora

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Citizenship is a concept of legal status which holds numbers of rights and entitlements and gives a sense of identity and belonging to the homeland country. It acquires or contains a universal desire term. Citizenship can be categories in many terms such as bad citizens, good citizens, active citizens and passive citizens. Having a citizenship is not only denoted legal status but also represents other claims, presumption and another status. Citizen is a word which is more than unselfconsciously imitative impertinence. During the British colonialism, British imperialist due their immigration and emigration policies had changed the concept of citizenship which is known as “imperial citizenship”. Imperial citizenship is fundamental ideas which distinguish between the external and internal aspects of citizenship question (S. Banerjee, 2010). Historically imperial citizenship was referred to the status of Indians as member of the British Empire.

Citizenship is a term which acts as a preceded by a circumscribing of borders. It is the territorial boundaries which creates defaults categories of citizen, which live outside the boundaries and not able to enjoy domestic rights of citizenship. In recent times global migration has change the perceptions citizenship. In the era of globalization, migration include both skilled and unskilled labour but rise of refugee and which also includes outsiders in territorial boundary has threatened the harmony between the membership and the borders. In global migration there are certain terminologies which are used to describe them such as refuge, displaced persons, and outsiders captures etc. citizenship rights provides an exclusive light on those people who are already existing citizens in the country. But today, in the world of multiculturalism citizenship, the demand of recognition has displaced the demand of redistribution for which the citizenship theory has now allowing immigrants to express their rights such as in term of culture rights and seeks a balance between the ideal universal rights and the particular rights of minority which are different from the universal rights. Cosmopolitan is the sense which shares universality among all groups of people.

After world financial crisis in1991 when India and other small emerging economies opened up their economies and follow the strategy of American neoliberalism it create of visions of single human race. As it leads peaceful race which united by free trade and common legal norms, leds by states featuring civic liberties and representative institutions. In international theory such policy of liberal internationalism sought to create a global order that could enforce a code of conduct on the external relation between states. After world financial crisis in 1991 and the rise of neoliberal policies it give opportunity to designed the citizenship right in which it eliminate the social programs and promote the interest of big capital in the world economy( ). Neo liberalism reconfigures the relation between governing and governed, power and knowledge and sovereignty and territory. Neo liberalism or market driven policies had attack the citizenship element in different ways and challenges the unified model of citizenship. Even this affects the immigration and ideas and it reduces the citizenship protections. the concept of citizenship is based on binary opposition between the right of citizenship in national territory and stateless condition outside the nation- state. The politico legal concept is based on the reality that stae can only implement citizenship rights and entitlement and can only protect its claims through political membership. Citizenship as a political status continues to be exceedingly important for asylum seekers and refugee for whom gaining citizenship in host country is recognized as modern human being. Even the contemporary flow of capital and of migrants have interacted with sovereignty and rights which is discourses in complex way to free the citizenship claims once it knotted together in single territorialized mass.

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Diaspora or diasporic communities in modern period, even because of border land and nation state they give rise to post national identities. The tension between diasporic cosmopolitan and nationalism is remains important but state always attempts to regulate mobile ethnic population and found new ethno nations within the establishment of nation state. The catastrophic origins and forced migration are the main features of a Diaspora. According to Anderson, he warned that contemporary globalization promotes the transnational ethnicization which results into long distance nationalism which represents a serious politics that is radically unaccountability at same time. In globalization, Diaspora always became a way of formulating the identities and loyalties of population which intrinsic linked with its homeland. In international politics, it explains the relations between the host and home states which focus on the issues like discrimination against emigrants in the host state. Even in global migration security or stability model is one the major concern for the home state as it maintain the order and control dissent in the communities abroad.

In post modern era the term of Diaspora has changed from outsiders or migrators to wealth creator in an economy. The increase of financial clout generated by the various Diaspora and the importance of remittance for the economies has become the main factor to drive the greater institutionalization of state Diaspora relationship. After the financial crisis of the global economy it became hard to argue that nation state are not more concerned of flow of capital especially from emigrants. However, it is important to overlook on the needs for remittances in explaining the changing relationship of state and their Diaspora. As it creates the assumption that how the Diaspora’s remittance became more important for economic rationale. The connection between the hailing of Diaspora and democracy is persuasive which focus on the nature of site specific political system an important aspect, as to analyze on the production of the domestic abroad. If political system is closer to democracy then there is greater possibility for Diaspora to constitute as powerful subject.

The phenomenon of domestic abroad is a manifestation of transnationalism which reflects the change of nation state. Although the term Diaspora is a transnational concept but it intrinsically connects to nationalism and it driven by the states in the context of development in form of capital social relation both at a global and national level. In theoretical sense this phenomenon needs a framework which engages with conceptual category of transnationalism but also address the nationalism, it can only happen with help of state and capitalism. Tran nationalism is a emerging process which focus on making up transnational civil society, civil society known as imagined community. In a civilized society or community should not have narrow concepts of nationalism or not limited to individual state but it should carries more than of imaginative provincialism, Trans nationalism. According to some scholar, policy makers the ideas of imaginative provincialism or tans nationalism are the divorced from which separate states from its policies but also nations from nationalism. Transnational is a term which benefits those groups which act across the border favoring most of domestic needs and extend the liberal conception of state policy. The concept of Tran nationalism should fits within the border as it helps in study of identity in global politics and latter it shapes the ontological commitments. Identity should be conceptualized which should be based on corporate and as well as social form.

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The History Of Citizenship And Diaspora. (2021, September 02). Edubirdie. Retrieved February 5, 2023, from
“The History Of Citizenship And Diaspora.” Edubirdie, 02 Sept. 2021,
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The History Of Citizenship And Diaspora [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2021 Sept 02 [cited 2023 Feb 5]. Available from:
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