This case study is based on Mr Khan a 78 years old patient who is suffering from a serious heart condition and now admitted to hospital for treatment. The essay will focus on the different aspects that are relevant to this case study. It is identified that Mr Khan has myocardial infarction (MI) and is faced with serious health complications. The biopsychosocial aspect, along with the ethical, legal and professional issue of healthcare are the key elements of discussion and how to aid improve Mr Khan’s condition and demonstrate the importance of communication strategies and health promotion will be evaluated.
According to Waugh and Grant (2014), a myocardial infarction is a life threatening medical condition that can occur when there is a complete blockage of the flow of oxygen in the blood to the heart, the heart cells and cardiac muscles dies or become infarcted, thereby failing its major function to pump oxygen in the blood to the tissues and organs of the body. The coronary artery blockage is caused by plague of fatty substances or atheroma that prevents the flow of blood to the heart. WebMD (2019) reveals that difficulty in breathing, sweating confusion, dizziness and pain in the sternum that radiates through the left lower arm, cheek and jaw are signs of myocardial infractions. With regards to this case scenario, Waugh and Grant (2014) asserted that myocardial infarction is common among men of more than 60 years old. Prominently, when an individual is obese and has some family history of heart disease, Mr Khan’s age, body size, nutritional status and most probably family history constituted to the biological factors that triggered the ailment.
Psychological factors, such as work, stress and anxiety are some of the contributors for the cause of severe heart disease (Spielberger, 2019). Increased levels of anxiety and working stress, could have contributed to Mr Khans inability to follow a healthy lifestyle thus result in high cholesterol and triglycerides increase in his blood. Mr Khan’s wife is now anxious and worried thinking that her children and grandchildren will carry on his burden due to the health complexities of his condition and the effects this may have on them. It is important for every individual to have a good socio-economic status in order to live a healthy lifestyle. Due to the lack of these factors, Mr Khan is unable to live a healthy life (Piepoli, 2016). Stress, and poor lifestyle choices are some of the factors that can contribute to causation of severe heart conditions. The nurse should care for Mr Khans effectively, understanding the different factors that are relevant to his care and to focus on important guidelines and evidence regarding the practices for the management of this cardiac disease. Coronary intervention, drugs therapy and treatment procedures are highly recommended. (Song et al,2019). The nurse should demonstrate the principle of non-maleficence which requires health care professionals to do good and avoid or minimise harm to their patients in need of care (Beauchamp and Childress 2013).The increasing number of health-related incidents of cardiac arrest and acute cardiac disease are the most common diseases among patients (Fors, 2015).The nurse should demonstrate compassion and consider the welfare of the family. The nurse’s duty of care would escalate concerns about Mr Khan and ensure they are acting in the most appropriate way by prioritising the needs of Mr Khan, such as ensuring that his medication are given at the right time. Ruston et al. (2010) states that a patient’s welfare, informed consent and the involvement of the patient in decision making is paramount. It is the duty of nurses to maintain the data safety and security on behalf of Mr Khan. Revelation of any kind of Mr Khan’s information is completely unethical and illegal. In the health care sector, it is the responsibility of care professionals and other health care workers to be accountable for their patients.
The legal aspect indicates that it is the responsibility of nurses to maintain confidentiality, as sharing patient’s information without consent is against Human Right Act 1998 everyone has the right to respect their private and family life, NMC (2018). Mr Khans information should always be kept confidential. The initial step of health care professionals and staff is to arrange proper management systems after diagnosing the patient’s condition. CABG (Coronary Artery Bypass graft) PCT (percutaneous coronary intervention) is effective medical treatment procedure (Low, 2017).
The nurse’s role is to provide effective care by involving Mr Khan’s family in the treatment process which will ensure family-centred care. Royal College of Nursing (RCN, 2018) states that nurses should be accountable for the treatment of a patient in their care and to deliver safe, effective, compassionate care in a patient centred way with respect, dignity and confidentiality. The nurse should reassure Mrs Khan and family if recognising any changes in his condition and offer the family any necessary support that are relevant to them. The Nurse can make a referral for mental health support for Mrs Khan including medication review and follow up arrangements and treat them with empathy, identify their needs, communicate clearly and sensitively. Nurses and health care professionals can promote professionalism and trust ensuring patient autonomy (NMC, 2018). In Mr Khan’s case, he has the right to make choice or agree on resuscitation and do not resuscitate if there was a DNR in place in order to respect his directive.
The nurse should support Mrs Khan on how to access services and educate her on resources available such as medical leaflets on MI about low saturated foods that can aid her to reduce her potential risk. Regular blood tests are also advisable in order to check for troponin a substance found in the blood. (Zeymer, 2017). The nurse can also recommend an electrocardiogram (ECG) that could be done on Mrs Khan to see the heart rhythm which is the conductivity of the heart, due to following improper diet pattern and the presence of obesity. Mr Khan is affected by a number of health complexities, which can be measured in different ways such as performing an ECG and MRI scan to check his heart rhythm and the flow of the electrical charge of the neurons in his brain. The nurse can discuss with a dietician to plan out diet plans to aid and improve their health. As stated by World health organisation (WHO,n.d.), every year about 32.4 million people have experienced and potentially have died from strokes and heart attacks. However, with time the number of survivors has increased due to health promotion which consists of diet plans, weight loss plans and many more and as result reduce heart disease.
Communication plays an important role in the patient-nurse interaction, in order to enable Mr Khan and his family understand their medical terminology and the treatment process that are being offered and to decide whether they feel it is appropriate for them. Effective communication and collaboration in the working environment will provide effective patient-centred care. However, in some cases health care professionals are unable to provide such care and effective treatment due to lack of communication and information that is received both by the health care professional and the patient in this case (Carvalho, et al, 2017). Different strategies are used in terms of communication such as verbal and non-verbal communication which involves the conveyance of information and ideas. Also, good listening skills are important as your patient needs to know that you are actually paying attention to what they are telling you about their current condition (Benbow, Jordan, Knight, White, 2019) and also the used of basic language will aid Mr Khan and family in the decision making process. However, excellent nursing care should be provided, and the ability to alleviate the loss will be plan. The appropriate measured should be in place in other to support the Khan’s family emotional, physical, cultural and spiritual comfort. Effective skilled communication is needed to reduce worry in order to create a conduessive atmosphere during the family intense and mixed emotions. The family-centre care is needed for his wife to provide mental support after the death of Mr Khan. Nurses play an important role during the bereavement, Nurse improves family outcomes by influencing the level of family satisfaction.
Conclusively, it is evident that health care professionals and famies play an important role in developing and delivering care and treatments in order to improve the living standard of patients with severe health conditions. In the case study of Mr Khan, it is demonstrated through the analysis of MI and the factors that can aid this condition such as, biopsychosocial as well the legal, professional and ethical aspects that are involved, therefore enabling a greater understanding of patients with such conditions as well as good communication to educate patients on this aliment can potentially reduce such conditions.