The Importance of Drinking Water Essay

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The aim this study is to ensures the supply of safe drinking water that needs to be monitors within real time applications by using IOT(Internet Of Things)based system . This system consists of several sensors are used to measures the physical as well as chemical parameters of the water . The parameters such as temperature, pH , turbidity , conductivity , dissolved oxygen and hardness and also some chemical parameters of water. The measured values from the sensors can be carried to the micro controller of IOT based system .For this purpose more than 20 water samples were collected in different mandals of East Godavari District,Andra Pradesh, India .

Water is one of the most significant and most precious natural resources.It is embodiment of something in the life of all living organisms from the simplest plant and microorganisms to the most complex living system known as human body. A person can live without food for five weeks or more, but without water he can survive for only a few days .Water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen atoms with a chemical formula H2O and the most generous compound (70%)on earth surface. Water is a limited resource and is essential for agriculture, industry and for creatures existence on earth including human beings. Lots of people don’t realize the true importance of drinking enough water every day. More water are wasted by many uncontrolled way. Water is an outstanding due to its unique chemical and physical properties.It be a pivotal factor for development and the quality of life in many countries.In individual dreary areas it has even become a survival factor(1).Therefore,”water stands for human consumption must not contain pathogen-microbes or deleterious chemicals”, because water contaminated with micro-organisms is the cause of ubiquitous(2) . That is good drinking water is not a opulence but one of the most crucial requirements of life itself(3).Water makes up more than two thirds of human body weight , human brain is made up of 95% of water, blood is 82% and lungs 90% . However, developing countries have endures from a lack of access to safe drinking water from recovered sources and to acceptable sanitation services(4) . The WHO(5) bring to light that seventy five percent of all diseases in developing countries develops from polluted drinking water.

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Therefore water quality concerns frequently the most important component for measuring access to improved water sources(6).Acceptable quality shows the safety of drinking water in terms of physical , chemical and biological parameters(7) . International and local areas have established those parameters to determine physicochemical quality of drinking water . The problems associated with chemical compounds of drinking water arise primarily from their ability to cause adverse or harmful health effects after sustained periods of revealing of particular concerns are contaminants that have collecting noxious properties such as heavy metals and substances that are carcinogenic(8) . The most common problems in household water supplies may be hardness , iron , sulphades , sodiumchlorides , alkalinity , acidity and dissolved solids and some chemical contaminations.By using the IOT based monitoring system , we avoid and detects the unpurified water quality for the human utilized water .

The word pH stands for potential of hydrogen . It deals with measure of hydrogen ion concentration in water . And it decides the nature of water that is acidity or alkalinity nature of water.If the pH value of nearly 1 , it acts as acidic nature of water . The pH of 14 being strongly basic (or alkaline) nature . The standard value of pH is 7 ( that is Neutral) . Generally,the pH value of drinking water is ranges between 6.5-8.5 . It is considered as a standard level concentration of standard organisations . The range exceeds degree level of concentration causes the harmful effects to consumers.

Turbidity is a measure of clearness of water quality . This measurement deterrmines the how many particles are floating around in the water such as plant refuses , sand , precipitate and clay , which influences the amount of sunlight reaching aquatic plants . Turbidity can potentially affect the rate of photosynthesis, and therefore the growth of plants or algae in the water body. It is typically expressed using Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU).

Dissolved oxygen (DO) are reported in units of milligrams of oxygen gas (O2) dissolved in each litre of water (i.e. mg/L) or as a percentage of the maximum amount of DO that is possible in a waterbody at a specified temperature and salinity (% saturation) . DO concentrations are dependent on atmospheric pressure, and this is taken into account during instrument calibration. Considerable differences between DO concentrations at the surface and at depth in waterbodies can result from stratification of the water column, due to temperature or salinity effects. This effect is usually most pronounced in summer months when surface waters are considerably warmer than deeper waters. Excess DO can lead to ‘gas bubble disease’ in fish, where oxygen bubbles can form in the vascular system, gill lamellae and eyes, amongest other organs, which can lead to death . It can measures the both (mg/L and % saturation) should be recorded.

Electrical conductivity (EC) often simply called conductivity, is a measure of the ability of water to conduct an electrical current. The ability to conduct an electric current is due to the presence of dissolved salts. Thus, EC is used to calculate salinity and the concentration of dissolved salts in a waterbody. The formal unit for conductivity is siemens per metre (S/m), however microsiemens per centimetre (μS/cm) is more commonly used when measuring fresh or brackish waters, and millisiemens per centimetre (mS/cm) when measuring estuarine and marine waters. EC varies with temperature, and values reported are usually corrected to 25°C. Such data are known as Specific Conductance. A difference of 5°C can alter conductivity by approximately 10%. Many conductivity instruments have compensation functions so that EC at 25°C can be read directly (verify by checking the instruments manual).

Total dissolved solids (TDS) include total dissolved salts but also non-ionised species (e.g. sugars, other organics and colloidal particles). Therefore , “TDS values are often larger than total dissolved salt values for the same water sample “. Total dissolved solids are either determined by filtering a water sample, evaporating a weighed amount of filtrate to dryness in a weighed dish, drying to a constant weight , and determining the increased mass of the dish .

In drinking water hardness is mainly contributed by bicarbonates , carbonates , sulphates and chlorides of calcium and magnesium . So , the principal hardness causing ions are calcium and magnesium . The acceptable limit of total hardness is 300 mg/L whereas the maximum limit is 600 mg/L . Hardness can classified water as soft , moderate , hard and very hard . As per this classification most of the samples comes under moderate to hard category . On the basis of this classification it has been observed that no water samples are soft but all the measured values were within the acceptable limit values of BIS (300 mg/L) and WHO (500 mg/L) .

Arsenic contamination in drinking water has been reportes quality of water can be realised . WHO has prescribed a provisional guideline value of As 10 µg/l in drinking water and according to India standard drinking water specifications . The highest desirable limit is 50 µg/l and no relaxation for maximum permissible level . Early clinical symptoms of acute intoxication include abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, muscular pain, and with flushing of the skin. Chronic exposure due to arsenic contaminated drinking water includes dermal lesions, peripheral neuropathy, skin cancer, and peripheral vascular disease. Major dermatological signs are nelano-keratosis, melanosis, spotted and diffuse keratosis, leucomelanosis, and dorsal keratosis .

Calcium is naturally present in water . It is a determinant of water hardness, because it can be found in water as Ca ions. Calcium content in the groundwater varies from 112.22 to 168.33 mg/l . All samples were within maximum permissible limit prescribed by the BIS and WHO .

Copper is an important to human health as an essential nutrient in low ammounts . As increasing the Cu content in the amount of water quality, it causes vomting , stomach cramps and nausea as well as liver and kidney problems . The desirable limits of Cu content in quality of water is 1.0 mg/l (WHO) and 0.05 mg/l (BSI) .

According to WHO 1984 and Indian standard drinking water specification 1991 the maximum permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 ppm and highest desirable limit is 1.0 ppm. Fluoride concentrations above 1.5 ppm in drinking water cause dental fluorosis and much higher concentration skeletal fluorosis. Low concentration (approximately 0.5 ppm) provides protection against dental caries.

Iron[9] is the most abundant element , by weight , in the earth’s crust . Iron is the second most abundant metal in earth’s crust . It is an essential element in human nutrition . The minimum daily requirement of iron is ranged from about 10 to 50 mg/ day (FAO/WHO 1988) . Natural water contains variable amounts of iron despite its universal distribution and abundance. Iron in drinking water is normally present in the ferrous or bivalent from (Fe++) . It is a vital oxygen transport mechanism in the blood all vertebrate and some invertebrate animals .

According to India standard drinking water specification 1991, highest desirable limit of lead in drinking water is 0.05 ppm and no relaxation for maximum permissible limit. Provisional tolerable weekly intake of 25 µg/l lead per kg body wt or 93.5 µg/kg body wt/ day for all age group was established (WHO 1993). From a drinking water perspective, the almost universal use of lead compounds in plumbing fittings and as solder in water distribution systems is important . It is present in tap water to some extent as a result of its dissolution from natural sources but primarily from household plumbing systems in which the pipes, solder, fittings, or service connections to homes contain lead . Lead is a cumulative general poison and associated with several health hazards like anemia (Moore. 1988),[10] reproductive effects (Wildt et al . 1983)[11] (Cullen et al . 1984).[12]

A large number of minerals contains the magnesium; It is washed from rocks and later on ends up in water. It has many different purposes and consequently may end up in water in many different ways. It also ends up in the environment from fertilizer application and from cattle feed. The values of magnesium ranges from 96.00 to 153.17 mg/l prescribed by BIS.

Sodium[13] is the sixth most abundant element in The Earth’s crust and it stems from rocks and soils . Concentrations however are much lower, depending on geological conditions and water contamination sodium compounds serve many different industrial purposes . The Sodium content in study area has shown variation from 82 to 1093 mg/l prescribed by BIS .

In this, the supply of safe drinking water quality parameters such as pH, Turbidity, Temperature, Conductivity and Hardness and also some chemical parameters are can be monitors within real time applications by using IOT(Internet Of Things)based system . And also examines the more than 20 water samples in different mandals of East Godavari District,Andra Pradesh in India were be recorded .

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