Human resource is considered to be the most beneficial or treasured asset in any organization. The human resources should be employed to maximum extent, in order to achieve the organization’s and the individual’s goals. Hence the employees work and performance has an impact on motivation and job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is all about how one feels towards one’s job.
An employee who is contented with their job is said to have a positive attitude towards the job and a dissatisfied employee has a negative grudge towards their job. A person having negative attitude towards their job tend to show an identity disposition due which they are inclined to experience nervousness, tension, worry, upset and distress, where as those with positive attitude will feel happy with themselves, others, and with their work. Job satisfaction reflects to the extent to which people find gratification, attainment and fulfillment towards their job.
Job satisfaction and job stress are important factors affecting workforce productivity. Job Satisfaction has been considered as a state in which people are:
- Induced and inclined to work effectively and efficiently.
- Prepared to work efficiently even when faced with consequences.
- Interested in promoting the name of the organization.
- More happy and satisfied with their job.
Meaning and Definition of Job Satisfaction
Job satisfaction is the feeling of satisfaction, fulfillment and achievement that you experience in your job when you know that your work is worth/or benefits you, or the degree to which your work gives you the satisfied feeling.
The most used definition of Job Satisfaction is of John Locke (1967) who has explained Job satisfaction as the pleasurable feeling or the positive emotional (appraisal) feel that arises towards one’s job or job experience. Building onto John Locke’s explanation Hulin and Judge (2003) stated that job satisfaction have multidimensional psychological responses to one’s job and such responses have evaluative (cognitive), emotional (affective) and behavioral aspects. Job satisfaction scales vary in the extent based on how one has the affective feelings towards their job. Affective Job Satisfaction is the emotional attachment one has towards their job. Hence, affective job satisfaction for individuals reflects the degree of pleasure their job in general induces. Cognitive Job Satisfaction is a more unbiased and rational evaluation of various facets of a job. Cognitive Job Satisfaction does not assess the degree of happiness or joy which arises from the specific job aspects (facets) rather, but rather gauges the extent to which those job aspects are judged by the job holder to be satisfactory in comparison with objectives they themselves set or with other jobs. Even while cognitive job satisfaction would lead to bring out effective job satisfaction, these two constructs are totally different and distinct from each other.
Job satisfaction can also be viewed within the broad range of controversies which affect an individual’s experience and skill of work, or their nature of working life. Job satisfaction can be understood in terms of its relation with other key factors, such as general welfare, stress at work, control (discipline) at work, home-work interface, and working conditions/status.
Factors related to Job Satisfaction
- Wages, Promotions, Nature of labor, Organizational Policies and Procedures, working conditions and Reward System.
- Cluster issue (group factor):
- Size and Supervision.
- Personality (e.g., self-esteem), Status (standing) and Seniority, Congruent with interest and General life satisfaction.
- Perceived stress refers to the extent as to which a job is found very hard to handle by anyone who faces any stressful situations as explained by Cohen & Wills (1985).
Job Stress is the most adverse, conflicting, competent, negative, harmful, physical and emotional responses that crop up when the pre-requisites of the job do not match the capabilities, proficiencies, resources, demand or needs of the worker.
“Research has indicated that excessive job stress can lead to long-term health problems cardiovascular disease, diabetes, weakened immune function, high blood pressure, musculoskeletal disorders, substance abuse, depression and anxiety”. One of the outcomes of job stress is psychological strains, which can be explained as a deviation from a normal behavior. One of the psychological strains is dissatisfaction towards their job and the different facets of job. Lazarus (1966) offers this definition of stress: ‘stress occurs when an individual perceives that the demands of an external situation are beyond his or her perceived ability to cope with them’
“While Cohen (1996) stated that however, too high level of perceived stress may influence the functioning of the immune system”
“Luthans (2002) defines work stress as an adaptive response to an external situation that results in physical, psychological, and behavioral deviations for organizational workers”.
Main causes of Job Stress:
- Job insecurity
- Work hours
- Control at work.
Research done by Nahar, Hossain, Rahman, Bairagi (2013) on to find the job satisfaction, job stress and mental health on government and non-government employees reveals that there was a significant difference between government and non-government employees in case of several job related factors. In this study it was important to know how job satisfaction, job stress and mental health differ in terms of kinds of job. Significant job stress was found in case of non-government employees, because they felt there is less job security and high work load. While, significant negative correlation was found between profession gratification and gender difference study, female employees were less satisfied than male employees with their lower level jobs with a very low payment and as well as due to less social security.
The gender differences studies on job stress and the importance of emotional and intellectual demands and social support in women across gender by Rivera Torres and Rafael Angel (2013) reveals that male employees perceive job stress in for quantitative demands like (work overload)—Work fast and Time pressure and women perceive stress over for qualitative demands—intellectually demanding job and emotionally demanding job.