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The Peculiarities Of Industrial Microbiology

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This report is about industrial microbiology that’s mean using benefit microorganisms in important product by some processes. Industrial microbiology has served humanity since prebiblival times , providing fermented beverages and food to enhance the quality of the life . the antibiotic era featured an explosion in number of microbial products for medicine ,nutrition, industry , and research .revolutionary development in molecular genetics are propelling the field into a new growth phase with promise of solution to major world problem .This science was used from 1900 till now. There are many area that microorganisms used in such as food and medical area. Industrial fermentation has a great role to producing products such as dairy alcohol and acidic acids fermentation the microorganisms that used in maybe aerobic or anaerobic. Every product must be safe for the costumers and have a good quality good safety linked to physical, chemical and microbiological hazards food quality mean the value of the product to the consumers. Food safety and quality ensured through hazard analysts critical control point and international organizations for standardization.


Industrial microbiology is the science that use microorganisms witch have important rule in production benefit products and also remove undesirable products. We have another term (biotechnology): Biotechnology is technology that utilizes biological systems, living organisms or parts of this to develop or create different products. Brewing and baking bread are examples of processes. The history of industrial microbiology is 5 phase, It was begun before 1900 witch was the study of Pasteur , and he said Alcohol production was result of microbial activity , ay 19th century Henson isolate unicellular yeast and prepared pure culture and later used them at bread production. Then at 1990-1940witch was the second phase is antibiotic period, penicillin and streptomycin production as an antibiotic and also production of amino acids. From 1940-1964 production of single cell protein, then later metabolite production and biotechnology period start. Now let’s talk about industrial fermentation which is the process of using microorganisms in order to produce a beneficial economic product such as wine and yoghurt most of the fermented products can be produced when the bacteria is in log and stationary phase .

We have two terms fermenter which is used in controlled processes for producing specific products, and fermentor is vessel which carries chemical reaction involving microorganisms or biochemical active substance from such organisms. We have probiotic and prebiotic, probiotic is consumable product that contains live organisms it was first discovered by Elie Metchinikoff . The most common type of microbes is lactic acid bacteria , probiotic are available on food and diary supplements, they have to many beneficial effects such as lowering cholesterol level and preventing colon cancer… but prebiotic are not microorganisms they are substance indigenous probiotic type of the bacteria reside in colon . Another fermentation is lactic acid fermentation which is sugar are convert to cellular energy and metabolic lactic and its anaerobic fermentation. There are homolactic and hetrolactic fermentation . We have dairy (cream products, kefir, and butter) , alcohol (wine , beer ) and acidic acid (vinegar) fermentation which is each of them have too many product for our self . This food need to be safe and protect food safety means assurance that food will not cause any harm to consumers. Food safety linked to physical , chemical and microbiological hazard . Food quality is attributes that influence products value to consumers. HACCP is a systematic approach identification and evaluation, control of food safety hazard . But ISO international organization for standardization.


By process of fermentation many products can produce fermentation is a process which is microorganisms is used to produce a beneficial product . Substrate will convert to product by presence of bacteria in fermentation processes. There is 3 type of fermentation system which is :

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  1. Batch process : is a closed system when substrate and producing microorganisms is added to the system and not removed till the fermentation complete.
  2. Continuous fermentation : is an open system the substrate feed in to the fermentor continually in a fixed rate .
  3. Feed batch fermentation : is the batch culture which feed continually with fresh medium without removal of the original culture medium from the fermentor.

Fermentation products are microbial biomass , enzyme and metabolic bioconversion. There is 2 stage of food fermentation which is primary fermentation is the initial fermentation, in which yeast convert sugars in grape juice or must to alcohol (wine) and carbon dioxide . And now let’s talk about probiotic and prebiotic, probiotic has too many benefits to our body but there are some factors that lead to loss of probiotic such as :

  • Unhealthy diet
  • poor digestion of food
  • antibiotic can kill important bacteria in intestine
  • chlorination of water
  • stress .

Probiotic and prebiotic have too many benefit to our body prebiotic are not microorganisms they are substrate of indigenous prebiotic type of bacteria that reside in colon and prebiotic carbohydrates found in fruits and vegetable . Buttermilk is a fermented dairy drink Traditionally, it was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cultured cream most modern buttermilk is cultured and that was the example for lactic acid fermentation , also we have yogurt that made by fermentation of milk and become solid and concentrated through evaporation , the microorganisms that used in this process are streptococcus thermophiles and lactobacillus , Butter is a product made from the solid components in milk (fat and protein) Butter usually consists of approximately 80 percent fat, 15 percent water, and five percent protein. The small amount of protein in butter acts as an emulsifier allowing the water and fat to stay suspended in single-phase solution it’s also example of lactic acid fermentation. Another example is cheese which is degraded concentrate of milk fat and casein with a small amount of milk fluids. That’s our product which we made it at the lab the first one is yogurt and the second on is cheese .

Alcohol fermentation ( Ethanol fermentation)

It’s anaerobic pathway which yeast covert sugar to ethanol carbon dioxide and other products. Yeast can used to bread production also at wine and beer production. Fermentation is acidic acid fermentation Vinegar production and it can be anaerobic or aerobic :

This entire product needs to be safe and a good quality . Food safety program cover all aspects of food service in industries. Such as cleaning ,staff health and hygiene , training and west management . Among available quality assurance is : good manufacturing practices are the practices required in order to conform to the guidelines recommended by agencies that control the authorization and licensing of the manufacture and sale of food. Good handing particular indicate comprehensive approach from the farm to the store or consumer . Ana hazard analysis critical control is a systematic preventive approach to food safety from biological , chemical , physical hazards and more recently radiological hazards in production processes that can cause the finished product to be unsafe and designs measures to reduce these risks to a safe level. Also ISO 22000is a standard developed by the international organization foe standardization dealing with food safety . It is a general derivative of ISO 22000


Microorganisms have a great role for production variety of products such as food and medical by different processes and fermentation and this product has a benefit for us and nature also. But it’s important to protect this product safe and have a good quality for the costumer.


  4. Romano, P. and Suzzi, G., 1996. Origin and production of acetoin during wine yeast fermentation. Applied and environmental microbiology, 62(2), p.309.
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  6. Buchholz, K. and Collins, J., 2013. The roots—a short history of industrial microbiology and biotechnology. Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 97(9), pp.3747-3762.
  7. Demain, A.L., 1981. Industrial microbiology. Science, 214(4524), pp.987-995. Advances in applied Walker, G.M., 2004. Metals in yeast fermentation processes.8_230.-, pp.19754 ,microbiology

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