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The Structure And Function Of Cells

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The cell theory was developed in 1839 by microbiologists Scheinman and Schwann describes the properties of cells. A cell is defined as the basic smallest unit of life that is responsible for all life’s processes. They are the building blocks of life of any living being. All living beings are made up of cells. They may be made by single cell also called unicellular and made by many cells called multicellular. “Mycoplasmas are the smallest known cells.” They provide shape and size to living being’s bodies. The count of cells depends on the creature. Human body has trillions of cells that are in different shapes and sizes and these all cells perform different functions in the body. Some living beings are multicellular, and some are single-cell beings but all living being’s life starts from a single cell. A single cell being is only capable of doing all obligatory life functions like multicellular beings, but they use only a single cell for those functions and in multicellular beings’ different cells do different functions. All organs in our body have different functions like digestion, assimilation, and absorption. This also in plants there are different organs in plants that do detailed functions for their survival like the roots of plants help them to absorption of minerals and water. In every living being body, every organ is composed of smaller parts known as tissues. The cell tissue is the main part of a cell it protects the cell from harmful elements and works as a border for the cell. The major components of the cell are cell membranes, nucleus, and cytoplasm.

The cytoplasm and nucleus are also known as the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane is porous and helps to the movement of materials both inside and outside. Plants also have a cell membrane that is called the cell wall. It is a thick outer layer of plants that protects the plants from any physical harm like variations in temperature, high wind speed and atmospheric moisture. There are some differences between animal and plant cells like plants have a cell wall which protects cell membrane but in animals only have a cell membrane. Moreover, in plant cells there are chloroplasts that are helpful in photosynthesis. In-plant cells there is a large vacuole in comparison to animal cells. The animal cells are blobby, but plant cells are tighter due to the presence of cell wall which forms a frame-like structure which help with rigidness. Add on this there are also some differences between human baby and adult cells. Most of the cell development start earlier from a baby birth but still their cells are not like adults because they need to survive outside the womb and adapt new living conditions. When a baby born than there is much cold world outside from womb. So, they need heat and for generating heat inside their body their body use brown fat by burning calories. Almost five percent of the fat cells in a infant’s babies are brown fat cells which is significant number from adults. Normally in adults’ cells are not divide often because of if it happens than there are more chances of cancer which is harmful disease but in case of babies its opposite in their body cells divide faster than adults because they need to grow their adult size. During the growth of babies in their brain many neurons also developed in a baby almost 100 billion neurons which is the count of whole lifetime of any human. This happen because everything is new for them and they want to know about new things in world in other words it’s the part of their learning. In babies nervous system is not only system which needs to develop also immune system need to upgrade in babies because when a baby in womb then they get food from their mother and tackle with diseases by their mothers immune system but when they come outside than they need to tackle with diseases by their own immune system. In starting babies’ immune system weak and that’s why babies become sick a lot and for making their immune system strong doctors also give them injections to tackle some diseases like polio.

The cytoplasm is located middle in the nucleus and cell membrane it is like jelly. All of the tasks for cell expansion, growth and replication are carried out in the cytoplasm of the cell. In cytoplasm materials move by diffusion a physical process that works only for short distances. In cytoplasm there are some other important elements of cell-like mitochondria, Golgi bodies, and ribosomes. The nucleus is also an important part of a cell which is situated in the middle of the cell and circular in shape. Nucleus is easily visible by a microscope and, we can mark it. The nucleus is different from the cytoplasm by a membrane known as the nucleus membrane. This membrane also the porous and allows the movement of materials inside the cytoplasm and nucleus. By the help of microscope, it is also possible to see a smaller sphere-shaped body inside the nucleus and this is called nucleolus. After the nucleolus nucleus also has another line like structures known as the genetic material which carry gens and transfer it to offspring from parents and they are visible only when the cell splits. It works like a USB pen drive which carries data and transfer to another computer.

Body tissues domain functions inside bodies. Tissues are the group of similar cells that work together as a team. A non-living material called intercellular ground fills the spaces between cells. This may be rich in some tissues and minimal in others. The intercellular matrix may contain special substances like salts and fibers that are irreplaceable to specific tissue and give that unique tissue features. There are four main tissue types in body epithelial, connective, muscle and nervous each is planned for particular functions. Epithelial tissues are common in the body. They form all the coverage on the body, line body cavities, and hollow organs and are the major tissue in glands and they perform a multiplicity of functions which include protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, filtration, diffusion, and sensory reception. The cells in epithelial tissue are highly tight together with very little intercellular ground. The tissues form covering and linings the cells have one free space that is not connected with other cells. On the other side of free surface, the cells are underlining to connective tissues by a non-cellular basement membrane. This membrane is made from carbohydrates and proteins secreted by the epithelial and connective tissue cells.

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Connective tissue fixes structures together form a framework and support the tissues and the body as a whole, collect fat, transport substances, protect against disease and help to repair tissue damage. They arise all over the body. Connective muscles are characterized by an abundance of intercellular matrix with relatively few cells. They can reproduce but not as epithelial cells. Most of connective have good blood supply but some do not have. Three most common issues found in connective cells are fibroblast, macrophage, and mast cell.

Muscle tissue is composed of cells that can shorten and contract to move the body parts. This tissue is full of cells and is well supplied with blood vessels. These cells are long and slender and also called muscle fibers and these are usually arranged in bundles and layers which are surrendered by connective tissue. Actin and myosin are the contractile proteins in muscles. Muscle tissue have three categories, and these are skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue. Nervous tissues are located in brain, spinal cord, and nerves. They are control all body activities. They send messages to brain before any activity and also control feelings, store memory and thinking. For doing this they need to transfer information with each other by way of electrical nerve impulses. The cells in nervous muscle that generate, and conduct are called neurons or nerve cells. These cells have three principal parts, and these are dendrites, the cell body, and axon.

Bones are type of mineralized connective cell that include a main section of the skeleton system. Bones are made from matrix of collagen calcium phosphate minerals. These are three types in body, and these are osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes. Osteoclasts are long tissues which decrease bone for resorption and absorption while they resettle. Osteoclasts control bone mineralization to and produce osteoid and biological material of the bone matrix. Osteocytes help in the making of bone and help keep calcium balance. Blood cells are very important in our body they are responsible for transporting oxygen in all parts of body and help to cure infections. They are built by bone marrow and the main types of cells in our body are red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Red blood cells detect blood type and transport oxygen to all parts of body. White blood cells are immune system cells which help to cure infections and diseases in body. Platelets are treatment any type of injury in body and cure wounds. Fat cells are the are main tissue of adipose cell. Adipocytes hold droplets of stored fat which can be used for energy and when fat is used than its cells become curved and enlarged and when it stored than cells become shrink. They also have endocrine function which produce sex hormone, blood pressure regulation, insulation sensitivity, fat storage and use, blood clotting, and cell singling. In human body two types of fat and these are white fat which store calories in body and body use these calories as energy and the second type of fat is brown fat which heat the calories and provide energy to body these both works together in our bodies. Skin works like a cover for body which cover all bones muscles, organs and protect body. It has many colours and on the surface of skin there are many tiny hairs which help to skin get oxygen and help to release sweat from body. Skin also store fat and produces vitamins and hormones. Sex cells are important for human evaluation because it creates new life. In males it called sperm and it has long tail like projections and they are motile. Female sex cells called ova have not long tail like mail sperm and they are large in comparative male cell. Stem cells are different from others because they are unspecialized cells, but they have the ability to become specialized cells and they are able to make specific organs and tissues. Stem cells can be separate many times to rebuild tissues and they are used by doctors for tissue repair, organ transplant, and for cure to diseases.

Cancer cells are different from any other cells in body because other cells help to cure body, but cancer cells destroy the body means they destroy other cells inside body. Like they are the virus for body. Cancer cells made by abnormal growth of any other cells in body due to uncontrolled separation between cells and they reach to wrong locations inside body. Moreover, cancer cells also start growing inside body by ultraviolet rays, radiation, chemicals and it also causes by the virus of DNA. They basically programmed death of other cells and destroy body from inside and most of the times they kill people.


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  2. Cell Structure and Functions: Parts, Plant & Animal Cell, Videos, Examples. (2019, October 4). Retrieved from
  3. Epithelial Tissue. (n.d.). Retrieved from
  4. Bailey, R. (2019, November 13). Learn About 11 Different Cell Types in the Body. Retrieved from
  5. Becker, A. (2019, July 31). What Is the Difference in the Cells of a Human Baby & a Human Adult? Retrieved from

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