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Theories And Models Of Organizational Behavior

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Organizational behaviour is the branch of study of human behaviour in offices, business environments, organizational settings to produce insights on how employees perform, exhibit their behavioral conduct in the workspace. OBE can help to perceive certain aspects that inspire, encourage employees for self-motivation, elevate performance and help organizations establish a strong bond and assurance with their employees.

OBE principles can ensure better operation of businesses with their application and effective functioning of organisations.

Theories of Intelligence

General intelligence g-factor is formulated to identify the clusters of related abilities and can predict result outcomes in varied academic areas.

Perhaps, people who score high in certain areas are like verbal reasoning ly to score relevantly good in other areas too like spatial reasoning.

7 factor intelligence theory perceived by L.L.Thurnstone which is the theory of primary abilities, word fluency, verbal comprehension, spatial reasoning, perceptual speed, numerical ability, inductive reasoning and memory. This theory formulated by Thurnstone with 7factor intelligence indirectly supported the first theory of single intelligence factor.(Brooke Khan ac, 2014)

Theories of personality

Personality definition: a human being's personal characteristic traits, interactive actions, unique persona. This often helps to embark on policies in a business and organizational environment.

Few theories associated with personality are trait theory where these personality behaviours are very difficult to change, perhaps they could be inherited from ancestors and may remain till death or may be extremely long termed like almost 50 years down the line, such traits could be being an extrovert, introvert, stable, neurotic, personality, consistent, predictable.

In contrast, Interactionist theory specifies a human behavior which is a personality combination of traits and specific environment behaviour can therefore often change as the environment changes(Hollander Lewin 1976).

Based on the role change, for example mother, father, friend, colleague, spouse, child, stranger the typical response of the person changes based on the interaction with these roles and environment perspective.

Theories of Motivation

Emphasis on psychological factors what makes people to work, non financial motivating factors. Workers are paid according to the number of outputs they produce in a set period of time(piece-rate pay). As a result workers are encouraged to work hard and maximise their productivity

According to Herzberg, motivators- are factors that directly encourage and stimulate people to work harder. Hygiene- factors that de-motivate and dilate employees if these are not available but do not encourage them to work harder if available

Theories of Perception

Perception is the way a concept is conceived by that person, many times perception changes as we age or learn new stuff. Gestalt principles of perception: Gestalt’s theory specifies the concept of seeing things as whole rather than individual parts with 6 design principles

Figure-ground the thought that we look at scene and at separate objects so that some of the focus or figure and others at the background.

Similarity the notion that we place objects with similar characteristics in a group these characteristics can include color size font shape texture and more proximity the belief that we group together objects that are close to each other.

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Closure the idea that our minds close objects that are not necessarily together or complete in order to create a whole

Theories of Attitudes and Behaviour

Formation of attitude and behavior:

Experience with object- attitude can develop from a personally rewarding or punishing experience with a object classical conditioning - it involves involuntary responses and is acquired through the pairing of two stimuli

Operant conditioning:- it based on the law of effect and involves voluntary responses, behaviors

vicarious learning - formation of attitude by observing behavior of others and consequences of that behavior.

Models in OBE

The 4 types of models in OBE are

  1. Autocratic model - I am the boss strategy of authority with relatively less performance with employees often getting stressful, annoyed, insecurity, health issues, weak productivity, quality of performance hindered due to over-bossing and minimum wage.
  2. Custodial model- Security, benefits, basic expectations of economic resources with orientation on money, implemented by business organizations with high resources and it is directly dependent on the firm management rather than direct boss, minimum motivation factor.
  3. Supportive model -status, recognition, performance, participations are driving factors and management, gauging the employee performance review, employees feel credible, self-worthy and membership in the organization.
  4. Collegial model - managerial emphasis on good and active teamwork, drive factors are work, task responsibility, accountability of assigned deliverables, self-motivation, sincerity

Systems model- work that is ethical, respectful, integrated with trust and integrity and gives a space to develop a community feeling

Organizational behavior in a software firm

Organizational behavior in a software firm: Many business organizations consider structure as the main critical factor that helps in employee productivity and right innovation and evolutionary changes in organizing structure can transform the business outputs.

OBE theory of intelligence applied on software company:

Theory of general intelligence

  1. As per kind of work staff in a software firm show general intelligence g-factor driving key technology
  2. g-factor needed to perform the basic highly technological tasks

Theory of Primary mental abilities

  1. More than 75% exhibit the 7-factor theory in multiple areas both in-related and varied.
  2. key job roles of software professional has a strong requirement which needs 7-factor intelligence
  3. 3Interview process to enter a software firm is extensive and often has the 7 intelligence skill tests to be cleared even in the initial job interview rounds.

Theory of multiple intelligence

  1. Almost 90% of the employees in software product firms compared to software services firms exhibit the 7 to 8 intelligences factor theory as they have intelligence in multiple areas both in-related and varied.
  2. Staff from highly calibered academic institutions, intellectual abilities for programming & artificial intelligence etc. Expertise in other areas management, establishing own firms, personal hobbies.

7 to 10% staff personalities fall in this category and are always unavailable, absenteeism(researchgate jun 2018), offline, troubling others deliberately, irrespective of given anything and everything they just don’t work. these people often display several behavioral issues such as drug abuse, coping up with normal life style etc.

Abilities to give excellent deliverable with medium volumes of work and required there is no pressure and stress They can cope up with work pressure and have knack to turn back decisions Can still produce good quality of work even at critical times of project deliveries and these people are generally sought at times of software crashes, production issues. They can work for 2 to 3 days in row without even resting.

Zero and NIL deliverables even in one year of span, but manage to stay in the jobs even for a long term by buying the job recruiter, bribing the HR manager etc.


With the above primary research and secondary research of organizational behaviour, I conclude that principles of OBE are mandatory to apply for effective business management, better employee satisfaction, better productivity and outcomes. But also the kind of OBE principles may be applicable and suitable for one business industry may be not quite suitable for another industry. But anyways employee satisfaction and good managerial behavior are must for any companies benefits, turnover and long term business goals.

For a software firm, supportive model and collegial model work best with big no-no to autocratic model. The employees and staff exhibit at least 7-factor intelligence and you need effective managers to work along with the teams for effective results, career goals and company benefits


  1. OBE, Bratton et al (2010),What is Organisational Behaviour?
  2. Brooke Khan ac, 2014, Theories of intelligence Khan academy
  3. Hollander Lewin 1976, Hollander's Theory of Personality (1976)
  4. Researchgate jun2018, Leadership Styles: Employee Stress, Well-being, Productivity, Turnover and Absenteeism
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Theories And Models Of Organizational Behavior. (2021, October 04). Edubirdie. Retrieved December 8, 2023, from
“Theories And Models Of Organizational Behavior.” Edubirdie, 04 Oct. 2021,
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