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Vaccinations Offer The Best Of Hope To Cure All Disease

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This review will use three studies from The National Immunisation Strategy, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; and The Merck Vaccine Company. These have been undertaken to determine how the MMR Vaccine treats these diseases and minimises infection outbreak through immunisation children. Comment by NARAYAN, Sanjeev: More suited for evidence. Comment by angeletta demko:

The results of these studies will be compiled to investigate data that proves the three studies are incorrect and proves infant immunisation has diminished MMR related infection outbreaks.

MMR is indicated for simultaneous vaccination against Measles, Mumps and Rubella in individuals 12 months of age or older. The administration of the first dose of MMR at 12 to 15 months of age and administration of the second dose of MMR at 4 to 6 years of age. (Centre for Disease Control, 2019) In the National Immunisation Strategy, it saw significant gains have been made during the period 2013–2018. (Victoria State Government, 2019) Immunisation coverage is now above 90% for all monitored age groups, and 94.6% among 5-year-old children. This has significantly cut the rate of infectious outbreaks by up to 70% providing research that can be used to prove that the Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR combined Vaccine) treat the diseases through the vaccination process to minimise infection outbreaks. (Australia Institute Of Health And Welfare, 2018)

Also, The Australian Government’s No Jab, No Pay Policy, and No Jab, No Play policies implemented in some states, have supported vaccination uptake and improved immunisation coverage rates. (Australia Institute Of Health And Welfare, 2018)

Rationale

Measles is the most infectious of all vaccine-preventable diseases and can have serious complications. The MMR Vaccine offers protection against- Measles, Mumps and Rubella, these are three very dangerous diseases. (National Centre for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, 2019). Measles is not common in Australia but have had cases increase in Western Australia. When a child is twelve and eighteen months they are vaccinated against Measles, Mumps and Rubella through the National Immunisation Program. (Christian H. Ross, 2017) The vaccine is 99% protection against Measles, Mumps and Rubella and helps reduce the spread of this disease. (Victoria State Government, 2019) This brings to the attention of how does the Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR combined Vaccine) treat the disease through the vaccination process to minimise infection outbreaks? (Department of Health, 2019)

The immune system is made up of cells, proteins, tissues and organs that defend germs and microorganisms. The immune system keeps people healthy and prevent infections. Through a series of steps called the immune response, this is when the immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade the body system and cause disease. There are two basic types that combine to seek out and destroy disease-causing organisms or substances. (Australia Institute Of Health And Welfare, 2018) (Christian H. Ross, 2017)

Immunisation is one of the significant public health interventions of the past two centuries, and the National Immunisation Program (NIP) is one of Australia’s great health success stories. The National Immunisation Strategy aims to expand and improve the NIP. (Department of Health, 2019) The strategy is consistent with the World Health Organization’s Global Vaccine Action Plan. It is also consistent with Australian, State and Territory Government efforts to reform the health system by encouraging a greater focus on health rather than illness and improving Australia’s preventive health system. (Christian H. Ross, 2017) Its aim is to prevent disease and severe outcomes of disease by maximising immunisation coverage in people of all ages. (Department of Health, 2019)

Analysis and Interpretation

The state of having a detectable antibody against a specific antigen which is measles, mumps and rubella, as measured by a blood test (serologic test). This means that the infants have immunity to the disease and if followed through with the additional dosage they can become immune to the disease. (Lorraine Huxley, & Margaret Walter, 1998)

MMR vaccine is very effective at protecting people against Measles, Mumps, and Rubella; and preventing the complications caused by these diseases. People who received one doses of MMR vaccine as a child nearly all are protected for life and don’t need a booster dose. An additional dose may be needed if you are at risk because of a mumps outbreak. This means by vaccinating children for Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR combined vaccine) minimises the outbreak of MMR and gives children immunity to the disease. (Christian H. Ross, 2017)

A positive serologic test for measles-specific IgG will confirm that the person is immune and is not at risk of infection regardless of the multiple myeloma. Multiple myeloma is a hematologic cancer and is considered immunosuppressive, so MMR vaccine is contraindicated in this person. (National Centre for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, 2019).

On Measles Notifications compiled by Australian Institute of Health and Welfare shows the complex relationship between the rates of measles and the infection outbreak of MMR, through the introduction of second dosage of MMR Vaccine it has minimised the rate of infections. (Australia Institute Of Health And Welfare, 2018)

The Australian National Immunisation Program (NIP) has included a measles vaccination since the mid-1970s, though it had been offered by the states and territories for several years prior to this. The NIP first included measles mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine in 1989. The NIP provides MMR vaccine for infants and a combined MMR-varicella (MMR-V) vaccine for young children. As seen in the graph in figure two the rate of infection has drastically diminished through addition dosage. (Christian H. Ross, 2017)

Australia was declared free of measles in 2014, which means that there is no ongoing local transmission of measles within the population (although the infection can still be brought in from overseas), and a system is in place to detect cases. Although measles is now uncommon in Australia, vaccination is still important because travellers can be infected while overseas and can carry the virus back to Australia. Because measles is so contagious, most of the population needs to be immune to measles to stop it spreading. In 2017, 93% of Australian 2-year old were fully vaccinated against measles. (Australia Institute Of Health And Welfare, 2018)

Measles notification and hospitalisation rates from the Department of Health demonstrates how many notifications of Measles. It is by law for all jurisdictions to notify when someone has or is likely to have measles in Australia, they must be notified to health authorities. A confirmed case of measles involves laboratory testing as definitive evidence or clinical evidence. Alternatively, a probable case of measles requires clinical and laboratory evidence suggesting measles infection. Hospitalisation is data for measles using the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, these were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Hospital Morbidity Database. (Department of Health, 2019) Comment by NARAYAN, Sanjeev: Is this your writing or from the source you have data from?

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This graph shows how from 2000 to 2011 the notifications and hospitalisations have diminished drastically; this is a result of the introduction of MMR Vaccines to infants and children. (Victoria State Government, 2019)

On deaths due to measles compiled by Australian Institute of health and welfare, demonstrates, there were 50 hospital admissions for measles in Australia. The number of measles deaths in Australia has fallen to near zero since vaccination was introduced for all infants. Between 1996 and 2016, only 3 reported deaths were caused by measles. Between 1976 and 1995, there were 98 deaths caused by measles, while in the previous 2 decades (between 1956 and 1975) there were 356 measles deaths.

From the introduction of the measles vaccine there has been a drastic drop of deaths due to the infection. Through the process of being hygienic and evolution of education into infectious diseases it has minimised the death rate to zero.

Evaluation

Limitations

Seroconversion rates, compares 284 children triple seronegative children for seropositive reported on If these children has a detectable antibody against a specific antigen which is measles, mumps and rubella, as measured by a blood test (serologic test). However, this research was conducted with only 284 infants aged from 7 months to 11 months which is the average age of a child when the first dose of MMR vaccine is given. 95% were seropositive for measles, 96% were seropositive to mumps and 99% were seropositive to rubella. However, a limitation of this data is lack of age range and number of participants. Consequently, leaving a large amount of data that could demonstrates how age affects the seroconversion. (Centre for Disease Control, 2019)

Measles notification, shows the complex relationship between the rates of measles and the infection outbreak of MMR. Through the introduction of second dosage of MMR Vaccine it has minimised the rate of infections. The graph supports from 1991 to 2017 and notifications per million population. It clearly demonstrates the MMR vaccine has caused the rate to diminish nearly entirely. Overall, a limitation of this data is the lack of evidence from previous years before the second dosage was introduced. This limitation may differ the final implication regarding whether the MMR vaccine has continued to decrease the prevalence of notifications in Australia. (Australia Institute Of Health And Welfare, 2018)

Notification and hospitalisations demonstrate from 2000 to 2011 the notifications and hospitalisations of MMR have diminished drastically because of the introduction of MMR Vaccines to infants and children. In 2009 it is seen a drastic increase in notification rates. A limitation of this information is that it is not stated whether these are notification and hospitalisation were proven to be measles, mumps and/or rubella. This limitation creates uncertainty and inadequacy. (Christian H. Ross, 2017)

Deaths due to measles demonstrates how many deaths have been caused by measles, mumps and rubella over 1907 to 2011. The introduction of the MMR vaccine and evolution of deaths throughout the years, throughout the start of the 1900’s it Is reassembly high until the introduction of the measle vaccine. A limitation of this set of data can be the vast information that is received through the graph, there is no age variation and is not a true representation of information in detail.

Justification Comment by NARAYAN, Sanjeev: Find other sections to distribute these.

Seroconversion Rates proves the claim that by providing a first dosage of the MMR Vaccine to an infant that nearly 100% of children had seropositive and demonstrated that MMR vaccine is highly immunogenic. Therefore, proving the research question that through the MMR combined Vaccine treats the disease through the vaccination process and minimises infection outbreaks by giving infants immunity through detectable antibody against a specific antigen of MMR.

Measles Notification Australia proves the claim and research question through the introduction of second dosage of MMR Vaccine in that it has minimised the rate of infections. It displays that after the introduction of second dosage of MMR that infection rates drastically drop. This proves that through the MMR combined vaccine, it treats and minimises infection rates. Therefore, revealing that an overall decrease in infection outbreaks of MMR dropped in Australia.

Measles notification and hospitalisation rates from the Department of Health demonstrates how many notifications of Measles. In this figure it proves that through the introduction of the MMR combined vaccine the hospitalisations and notifications have diminished. This proves that the MMR vaccine treats and creates immunity. (Christian H. Ross, 2017)

Deaths due to Measles approves the research question and claim through demonstrating that the number of measles deaths in Australia has fallen to near zero since vaccination was introduced for all infants. As a result, the MMR vaccine has treated the disease through the vaccination process to minimise infection outbreaks; henceforward, vaccines have reduced and, in some cases, eliminated many diseases that killed or severely disabled people just a few generations.

Overall Results

Through the research of The National Immunization Strategy, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; and The Merck Vaccine Company, positive results have been given and therefore concluded the claim and research question that, “Vaccinations offer the best of hope to cure all disease” and the MMR combined Vaccine treat the disease through the vaccination process and minimises infection outbreaks. All the evidence and data collection were appropriate from government funded research. This research has enabled the following conclusion to be reached that vaccinations offer the best of hope to cure all disease and the MMR combined Vaccine treats the disease through the vaccination process and minimises infection outbreaks. (Christian H. Ross, 2017)

Further Investigations Required

There are more details to be examined and these include the properties of which demonstrate how vaccinations to young infants creates a lifetime of immunity to these diseases. Improvements might include better advertisement and media of the positive aspects of vaccinating, and better funding for free vaccination to the indigenous communities. It would appear reasonable to conclude that through better advertising and funding that the vaccination percentage can be increased to reach 100% of Australians vaccinated. (Centre for Disease Control, 2019)

Conclusion

In conclusion, the studies were chosen to recognise the significance of the MMR Combined vaccine has on the infection rates. The review used the three studies from The National Immunization Strategy, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare; and The Merck Vaccine Company. These have given positive results that the MMR combined Vaccine treats the disease through the vaccination process to and minimise infection outbreaks. Through attempts to have 100% of infants vaccinated against MMR and through the introduction of multiple dosages it has decreased the infection outbreak to zero. This data is reliable and valid as all data was collected by government research. There is a consistency with the result. Thus, in summary the MMR combined Vaccine treat the disease through the vaccination process and minimises infection outbreaks through multiple dosages as infants. (Lorraine Huxley, & Margaret Walter, 1998)

Reference List

  1. Australia Institute Of Health And Welfare. (2018). Measles in Australia. [PDF]. Retrieved from https://www.aihw.gov.au/getmedia/c828baef-75d9-4295-9cc9-b3d50d7153a2/aihw-phe-236_Measles.pdf.aspx
  2. Centre for Disease Control. (2019). Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MR) Vaccination: what Everyone Should Know. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/mmr/public/index.html.
  3. Christian H. Ross. (2017). Https://embryo.asu.edu/pages/measles-mumps-and-rubella-mmr-vaccine. Retrieved from https://embryo.asu.edu/pages/measles-mumps-and-rubella-mmr-vaccine.
  4. Department of Health. (2019). Measles mumps rubella (MMR) vaccine. Retrieved from https://healthywa.wa.gov.au/Articles/J_M/Measles-mumps-rubella-MMR-vaccine.
  5. Department of Health. (2019). Australian vaccine preventable disease epidemiological review series: Measles 2000–2011. Retrieved from https://www.health.gov.au/internet/main/publishing.nsf/Content/cda-cdi3901a.htm
  6. Department of Health. (2019). National Immunisation Strategy. [PDF]. Retrieved from https://beta.health.gov.au/sites/default/files/national-immunisation-strategy-for-australia-2019-2024_0.pdf
  7. Lorraine Huxley, & Margaret Walter. (1998). Biology. (3rd ed.). Victoria: Oxford University.
  8. National Centre for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases. (2019). Measles, Mumps, and Rubella (MMR) Vaccination: what Everyone Should Know. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/mmr/public/index.html
  9. Paul, A. (2019). A Look at Each Vaccine: Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccines. Retrieved from https://www.chop.edu/centers-programs/vaccine-education-center/vaccine-details/measles-mumps-and-rubella-vaccines.

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Vaccinations Offer The Best Of Hope To Cure All Disease. (2022, February 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved November 30, 2022, from https://edubirdie.com/examples/vaccinations-offer-the-best-of-hope-to-cure-all-disease/
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Vaccinations Offer The Best Of Hope To Cure All Disease. [online]. Available at: <https://edubirdie.com/examples/vaccinations-offer-the-best-of-hope-to-cure-all-disease/> [Accessed 30 Nov. 2022].
Vaccinations Offer The Best Of Hope To Cure All Disease [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Feb 17 [cited 2022 Nov 30]. Available from: https://edubirdie.com/examples/vaccinations-offer-the-best-of-hope-to-cure-all-disease/
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