Various Enzyme Preparations and Their Aspects
In the past 20 years, various enzyme preparations have been used in meat processing. The common points of enzyme preparations are: strong professionalism and can be carried out under mild conditions; low cost and energy consumption in processing; significant changes in meat properties and meat quality improvement; high production efficiency; No harmful ingredients remain in the meat. The usage of nine enzyme preparations for meat processing is introduced for reference.
Currently there is more production in Europe and the United States, and there is Ajinomoto in Japan in Asia. Transglutaminase can utilize the formamide group of the glutamine residue on the protein peptide chain of the meat product as the donor and the amino group of the lysine residue as the acceptor to catalyze the transamination reaction, thereby making the protein Cross-linking occurs within or between molecules. It is reported that glutenin catalyzes the degree of cross-linking between casein and chicken globulin to soy (4780, 10.00, 0.21%) protein, corn (2445, 8.00, 0.33%) and myosin. Good results were obtained by using transglutaminase and sodium caseinate to reconstitute veal (reconstruct muscle tissue from ground beef pieces) through an enzymatic reaction.
Transglutaminase has limited ability to improve the binding force between minced meat pieces when used alone, and it must have a significant effect when sodium caseinate is added. The dosage is 0.05% transglutaminase and 1% sodium caseinate. The binding force between the minced meat pieces is more than 100 g / cm2. In this way, the minced meat pieces can be used as whole meat pieces. Features. The above method of recombining ground beef into meat pieces by using the enzymatic method can improve the raw material utilization rate of a meat processing plant, increase the product yield, and improve economic benefits.
As a food industry additive, prion protease can be used to improve food quality. Formulated with protease as a tenderizer to effectively promote tenderization of meat during processing. The meat obtained by slaughtering aging animals will become rough and hard after cooking, which will make it difficult to process such raw meat, reduce the taste and reduce the quality. In the 1980s and 1990s, it was used to tenderize meat. The main ingredients are protease and salt. The most used and most stable protease is papain. In the 1980s and 1990s, a lot of systematic research work was done on the relationship between the action of papain and the effectiveness of tenderizers. Food scientists based on a large number of meat sensory The evaluation of meat physical properties (such as tenderness, shearing force, etc.) has fully affirmed the tenderization effect of meat tenderizers with papain as the main component. The research work also proves that the protease suitable for the preparation of meat tenderizers must have a relatively high heat resistance (thermal stability). This is because the tenderizers fully perform their function. As the temperature gradually increases, it plays a role in the stage where papain has not lost its activity. Obviously, cooking at too high temperature will cause the denaturation of collagen and elastin in meat connective tissue, and papain can rapidly increase the solubility of collagen protein at 60 ℃ ~ 75 ℃.
In order to improve the tenderness of meat, foreign countries use intravenous injection of papain or bromelain, or post-mortem injection of butter, vegetable oil, phosphate, salt, etc., which can significantly improve the tenderness of livestock meat. This method began to be used more often in beef tenderization, and soon it was widely used in pork and poultry. In the late 1980s, papaya enzymes were mainly used to change the taste and taste of meat. Beef, pork, and poultry meat treated with papaya enzymes can become tender and delicious.
Papaya enzyme is a natural protease extracted from papaya. 20 minutes to 30 minutes before the slaughter of livestock and poultry, it is injected from the jugular vein and evenly distributed to various parts of the body through the period of blood circulation to gradually destroy the collagen fibers of the muscle tissue and increase the tenderness of the meat. The same effect can be achieved with intramuscular injection of papain. Livestock and poultry meat after slaughter and separation is stored, and papain is at rest in the meat. In the subsequent cooking and heating, when the temperature reaches the appropriate temperature for the enzymatic reaction, the enzyme is activated and the tenderness of the meat is improved.
Abstract The experiment that was performed over two weeks served to examine how the amount of enzyme, amount of substrate, presence of inhibitor, or the magnitude of temperature changes the reaction rate between the enzyme and substrate present. The enzyme used in these experiments was peroxidase which was extracted from turnips and placed in flasks to be transferred into tubes and would later be mixed with the substrate to start the reaction. The substrate used in the experiment was hydrogen...
Multi-enzyme feed is a type of biological feed. This kind of feed is rich in a variety of feed enzymes, which can eliminate the anti-nutritional components in feed ingredients to a certain extent or play a supplementary role in animal endogenous enzymes. Therefore, it is beneficial to improve the quality of the existing feed and increase the utilization rate of the feed. Based on the relevant data at home and abroad, we reviewed the types and functions of common feed...
Currently, the ongoing COVID-19 epidemic has led to an unprecedented shortage of disinfectants, hand sanitizers and detergents, especially in the United States and Europe. Hand sanitizer is regarded as an auxiliary product of hand soap and liquid. Since no vaccines or antiviral drugs have been developed to prevent or treat the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic, the importance of using hand sanitizer for personal hygiene and disinfection has reached a new height. To prevent the spread of coronavirus and control the number of...
With the rising importance of enzyme-assisted extraction of essential oil from plant and microbial sources, researchers are now interested in studying the effect of combination of enzyme-assisted extraction and other non-conventional extraction techniques on the extraction of essential oil. Non-conventional techniques such as three-phase partitioning, microwave-assisted extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction (Gupta et al. 2012). The combination of enzyme-assisted extraction and these techniques can be considered economical as well as an efﬁcient method to extract essential oil. Enzyme-Assisted...
Biology needs a metabolic reaction at all times. This is because a special type of catalyst-enzymes are widely present in the body. It can effectively reduce the activation energy of each molecule participating in a chemical reaction, enabling the organism to complete various chemical reactions quickly and efficiently. Plant photosynthesis, human digestion and absorption of food all occur and complete with the direct participation of enzymes. Enzyme is a kind of protein with special function produced by living cells, and...
Rationale The research question that was decided was formed from the claim ‘Crispr can produce individuals who are free of genetic disease.’ An article posted on the Morning Edition mentioned that a New York scientist conducted gene-editing experiments which, although raised some ethical concerns, could someday prevent many inherited diseases. Before the final question could be developed, numerous elements from the claim needed to be considered and broken down into key questions. Examples of these include ‘What is CRISPR?’, ‘What...
Enzymes are proteins that help with digestion and metabolism. Their function is to speed up certain reactions within cells. In this case, enzymes were part of a reaction with iodine. A total of eight test tubes were used; four for bacterial amylase and the other four for fungal amylase. A spot place was used to see the reaction between the amylase and iodine. Four out of the eight test tubes were labeled with the letter ‘S’ for starch solution. Each...
With nutrients being consumed daily by individuals, this lab serves to inform one of the processes of osmosis and diffusion when digested, as well as detecting the nutrient that will result in either process. Due to the human viewing the objective, they must be informed of the processes that occur within their bodies, hence the usage of a semi-permeable membrane and substances to determine the process. The processes must be acknowledged as well as the functions of nutrients within the...
Introduction Starch is a common polysaccharide, made up of glucose monomers (Serrano and Peralta, 2015). Pancreatic amylase is often the enzyme involved in the digestion of starch (Chegeni et al., 2018). Amylase is also an exoenzyme and facilitates the digestion of dietary carbohydrates (Nifty et al., 2019). Amylase causes conformational changes in starch, resulting in a reduced viscosity, and increased solubility (Vafina et al., 2018) Amylase is often used in the food industry, in the health field, as well as...
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