In language there is a metafunction, namely, Ideational; correlation of the usefulness of language in conveying experience in the form of expression and understanding of the perception of life that is carried out consciously called transitivity. This study attempts to analyze the transitivity process of Palembang Malay verbs with Linguistic Functional Linguistics categories. The research method uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative (mixed method). The source of the data collected in the form of a conversation in Palembang Malay language by recording a conversation dialogue directly with the topic of family gathering social in the scope of Palembang Malay speaking families. There are three stages of analyzing the Palembang dialogue languag data. The first stage is identifying all forms of dialogue, and this is done qualitatively based on the Systemic Functional Linguistic theory. The second stage is to classify the form of conversation dialogue based on classifications from Edgin (2004). Six transitivity processes were found that emerged based on transitivity categories, namely: (First) material processes, (Second) mental processes clauses, (third) verbal processes clauses, (fourth) clause behavioral processes, (fifth) existential processes clause, (sixth) relational process clause. The emergence of all transitivity processes in the Palembang Malay language corresponds to the categorization of Functional Systemic Linguistics.
Both oral and written languages contain the context of the message of meaning that is inseparable from the daily lives of humans in interacting. The main context in conversation dialogue in general is not always focused on the speaker, but usually the context is addressed to the interlocutor who is faced with situations and conditions that are in accordance with the topic of the conversation. Thus a person’s conversation dialogue cannot be measured from his own understanding of the meaning of a context in question but one must understand all the meanings that are the topic of conversation (see, Talmy 2000, p.338-339, and Palmer 1976, p. 132) . Then Saeed (2016, p. 9) explains that when, a component of meaning is known as the main point between the meaning of words and sentences. So to understand a language from native speakers, it is necessary to understand thousands of vocabulary from the speaker. It is clear that language in the form of text and speech cannot be separated from the function of meaning lexically and grammatically from the perpetrators of language.
Allan (2001, p.2) explained that the language spoken by humans is very important because there are many meanings implied in it. Therefore, human language can be examined from four different perspectives: 1) Language is a manifestation of a series of events, both as objects and as the subject of an ongoing event. 2) the manifestation of human language can be abstract and concrete, 3) Language is cognition or has psychological value in the form of functions, concepts, and meanings, 4) Language is a means of communication among fellow human beings which tends to lead to social interaction behavior of the community. It is understandable that the four different perspective perspectives described above have a close relationship to Linguistic Functional Linguistics which discusses the language of the language in the social sphere of the language community.
Therefore, Linguistic Functional Linguistics means the language of the usability function as a medium of social interaction. But language also has a function, namely, Ideational; correlation of the usefulness of language in conveying experiences in the form of expressions and understanding of life perceptions that are carried out consciously. Interpersonal; there is a correlation between the use of language orally in the form of conversation dialogues to convey messages between individuals (speakers and listeners). Textual; with regard to the generalization of a text beginning with letters, word elements, sentences that form a complete cohesive and coherent discourse (Banks, 2002, p. 2-3).
There are studies related to Systemic Functional Linguistics about the transitivity of verbs in Sundanese in terms of all transitivity processes and some mental processes with four unit units namely perception, cognition, desideration and emotion / affection. (See Sujatna 2012, and Kelik 2017). Starting from the existence of the research, the researchers wanted to know the realization process of transitivity in Palembang Malay language with the following research questions; Can all transitivity processes be found in the Palembang Malay language conversation dialogue. What kind of transitivity dominates the Palembang language conversation dialogue.Linguistik Fungsional Sistemik (LFS) untuk kali pertama dikembangkan secara meluas oleh Halliday di era tahun 1960-an di Inggris kemudian menyebar luas di Australia. SFL yang dikembangakan oleh Halliday tidak terlepas dari hasil karya dari para linguis besar seperti Bronislow Malinowski sebagai ahli antropolgi berasal dari Polandia dan J.R Firth sebagai pencetus ilmu Linguistik yang merupakan suatu disiplin ilmu di Inggris (lihat, misalnya: Almurashi 2016, Endarto, 2017, Sadighi, 2008,p.4, Faradi, 2015, p.3, Juramli 2015, p.3, Tedi, 2012, p.1) yang berpondasi pada kajian ilmu linguistik terapan. Terdapat dua pendekatan, yakni pertama memiliki pengertian bahwa pemakaian bahasa merupakan sistem tanda. Sebagai tanda atau semiotik, bahasa terjadi dari dua unsur, yakni arti dan ekspresi.
It is understandable that language studies can generally be categorized into two domains, namely formal linguistics and functional linguistics. Formal linguistics means language as a structure that can be analyzed into smaller language units. Functional linguistics views language as a sign system that can be analyzed based on the structure of language and the use of language (Adisaputra 2008). Thus the use of language is closely related to what, why and how the language is used and the application of linguistic experience of language users is called transitivity. In a systemic functional linguistic perspective (LFS), language is a system of meanings and other systems (in the form of systems of form and expression) to realize these meanings (Saragih, 2002: 1).
It is clear that the Systemic Functional Linguistics study is based on the concept of language metafunction which explains language at the level of social phenomena as a form of social symptom signs and is also a text (mutually decisive conversation dialogues referring to the social context.
(Halliday, 1994, p. 107) Systemic Functional Linguistics explains that a unit of perfect experience is realized in the form of clauses in the form of (a) process, (b) participants, and (c) circulation. The process refers to activities that occur in clauses in verb form. Participants are subjects that are people or objects that are actively involved in the process of the activity. Circumstantial is an environment that is the place where the activity process involves participants. It is understandable that the basic subject of experience is in the form of a process, therefore at the level of clauses, the process is very influential in determining the number and participant categories.
In Systemic Functional Linguistics, there are six types of transitivity processes, namely; : (1) material processes, (2) behavioral processes, (3) mental processes, (4) verbal processes, (5) relational processes, (6) existential processes (Halliday & Mathiessen, 2004, p.172). However, in the transitivity analysis process, the Palembang Malay language conversation dialogue used the concept of transitivity process applied by Edgins (2004) who was one of the followers of the Halliday theory. In Table 1 below, Edgins divides the concept of transitivity processes into: (1) material processes, (2) mental processes, (3) verbal processes, (4) behavioral processes, (5) existential processes, (6) Edgins relational processes (2004 , P. 214). Can be seen in table 1 below.
This research method is carried out using a combined qualitative and quantitative method (mixed method) see (Cresswell 2008). Referring to the subject matter of the question in this study, the source of data collected was in the form of a conversation in the Palembang Malay language by recording a live conversation dialogue about the family gathering gathering which is usually done regularly every month in the Palembang family speaking Malay. The dialogue is then copied according to the original. This study involved 2 purposive purposive researchers, namely those who often held Palembang language conversations every day. Examples of conversation dialogs can be seen in the Appendix 1 list.
There are three stages carried out in this study to analyze the data of Palembang Malay language conversation dialogue. The first stage is identifying all forms of dialogue, and this is done qualitatively based on the Systemic Functional Linguistic theory. The second stage is to classify the form of conversation dialogue based on classifications from Edgin (2004). The third stage is to examine the tendency of the transitivity process in the Palembang Malay language dialogue, by identifying the frequency of occurrence of each type of transitivity and calculating it.
Results and Discussion
In this discussion, researchers tried to provide examples of data that represented all available data. The researcher tries to study, analyze the meaning of representation that appears in the transitivity process. The emergence of Palembang verbs is a material process, a mental process, a verbal process, a behavioral process, an existential process and a relationship process. It was found that the Palembang Malay verb appeared in all transitivity processes.
From the discussion of the results of the transitivity process, in general the Palembang Malay language clause can occur in all transitivity processes. The transitivation process that dominates many found in this research is the material process while the few that arise are relational and existential processes. This research is also in line with (Sujatna 2012 and Kelik 2017) about the study of the transitivity of Sundanese verbs.
This study explores two problems, namely the emergence of all verb transitivity processes in the Palembang Malay language dialogue along with the dominance of many and few processes in the Palembang Malay language dialogue. This study found 6 types of transitivity processes. The six transitivity processes that appear are: (First) material processes totaling 9 clauses, (second) mental processes 6 clauses, (third) verbal processes 4 clauses, (fourth) behavioral 3 clausal processes, (fifth) 2 clause existential processes, (sixth) relational process 1 clause. The emergence of all transitivity processes in the Palembang Malay language corresponds to the categorization of Functional Systemic transitivity Linguistics proposed by Edgin (2014).
- Adisaputra, Abdurahman (2008). Linguistik Fungsional Sistemik: Analisis Teks Materi Pembelajaran di Sekolah Dasar (SD). LOGAT Jurnal Ilmiah Bahasa dan Sastra (4). Diakses dari http://repository.usu.ac.id
- Almurashi, Wael Abdulrahman (2016). An Introduction to Halliday’s Systemic Functional Linguistics. Macrothink Institute a Journal for Study of English Linguistics (4).Diakses dari http://dx.doi.org
- Allan, Keith. (2001). Natural Language Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
- Banks, David (2017). Systemic Functional Linguistics as AModel for Text Analysis.ASP La Revue Du GERAS. Diakses dari http:// URL: http://asp.revues.org/1584
- Creswell, Jhon.W, 2008, Research Design: Qualitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches, California: SAGE Publications.Inc
- Eggins, Suzanne. (2004). Introduction to systemic functional linguistics. A&C Black.
- Endarto, Tri Ignasius (2017). Systemic Functional Linguistics: A Brief Introduction. ResearchGate. Diakses dari http:// www.researchgate.net/publication/318700637
- Faradi, Abdul Azis (2008) Kajian Modalitas Linguistik Fungsional Sistemik PadaTeks Debat CAPRES-CAWAPRES Pada PILPRES 2014-2019 dan Relevansinya dengan Pembelajaran Wacana di Sekolah. RETORIKA Jurnal Ilmu Bahasa 1 12. Diakses dari http://ejournal.warmadewa.ac.id/index.php/jret.
- Halliday, M.A.K. 1994. An Introduction toFunctional Grammar. London: Arnold.
- Halliday & Mathiessen (2004). An Introduction to Functional Grammar. Hodder Arnold
- Halliday, M.A.K., & Mathiessen, C.M.I.M.2014. Halliday’s Introduction toFunctional Grammar. 4th Edition.New York: Routledge.
- Kelik, Wachyudi 2017. Proses Transitivitas Verba Bahasa Sunda:Sebuah Pendekatan Sistemik Fungsional Tipologi. Bandung: Unpublished paper.
- Juramli (2015). Transitivitas pada Teks Qaaiqul AkhbarTelaah Fungsi Ideasional dalam Kajian Linguistik Fungsional Sistemik. Litera Jurnal Sastra dan Bahasa 2. Diakses dari http://jurnal.undhirabali.ac.id/index.php/lentera/article/view/44
- Palmer, F. R. (1976). Semantics a New Outlines. London: Cambridge University press.
- Saragih, Amrin. 2002. Bahasa dalam Konteks sosial. Medan: FBS Unimed.
- Sadigh, Firooz (2008) Chomsky’s Universal Grammar and Halliday’s SystemicFunctional Linguistics: An Appraisal and a Compromise. Pan-Pacific Association of Applied Linguistics 12. Diakses dari http://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ920998
- Saeed, jhon I. (2016). Semantics. Sussex UK: Blackwell publisher.
- Sujatna, E. T. S. (2012). Sundanese verbs in mental processes: A systemic functional linguistics approach. International Journal of Linguistics, 4(4), 468.
- Talmy, Leonard. (2000). Toward a Cognitive Semantics. London: The Massachusetts Institute of Technology press.
- Yusuf, Tedi (2012). Komparasi Tradisi Linguistik Halliday Versus Tradisi Linguistik Chomsky. Jurnal UINSGD. Diakses dari http:// journal.uinsgd.ac.id/index.php/istek/article/viewFile/286/300