In Muslim societies, Waqf plays a very crucial role. It has been the principle origin for various public services provided to communities. It has been relegated as a mere charity, though its traditionally been productive in manufacturing financial gain that is sustainable and in improving the economic conditions in Muslim countries. Popularly, the creation of Waqf is instilled in Muslims’ culture and has enclosed all walks of life. It has additionally contributed to the service of man in diverse areas of development and progress.a
Nevertheless, in the present times Waqf has seen to be growing smaller and assuming a diminishing role that raises a variety of queries on what what issues/ factors actually led to an earlier growth of Waqf and what was the factor related to its decline later on. This review generates a historical narrative of Waqf, projecting light on the explanations for its decline and also the need for reform. The paper deduces that if Muslims have good and sensible governments that can manage the funds are transparent, assembles the laws governing Waqf and style an integrated network of sciences to manage and monitor the issues and problems, they can pragmatically resuscitate the practice of Waqf. The correct management and disbursement of Waqf has a great potential to become an excellent supply of revenue for the Ummah.
Waqf is a monetary beneficent act set up by retaining steady and immovable properties to ceaselessly spend its income to satisfy public or family needs, in view of the inclinations and conditions set by the founder. When the property is made as a Waqf, it can never be given as present, acquired, or sold. The Waqf property remains intact as it belongs to Allah. Only its produced income is directed to its recipients. The primary inspiration for an originator to make Waqf is obviously expressed in both the Quran and the Sunnah. As featured in the Holy Quran, the making of Waqf is a route for originators to achieve honesty.
Islamic development has not just accomplished its progress because of the strength of its military, it is likewise because of the information, great deeds and magnanimous undertakings of its individuals. What is known as the Waqf system is one of the qualities that recognized Islamic development from others. The
Waqf added to the structure of Islamic progress; through which numerous mosques, schools, and educational centers were worked alongside private and public libraries, logical and research centers and different fields in various different backgrounds. The Waqf is likewise a territory for the opposition of rulers, priests, researchers, and people to set up labs for science, libraries, and assortment of books from numerous nations at any cost and making it accessible to everybody.
The cycle of Waqf proceeded until the Ottoman time, when the Sultans and legislative heads of the Ottoman state extended the extent of Waqf, who present regulatory developments for its supervision, they gave various directions to coordinate its issues. In any case, the start of the twentieth century began the decrease in the job of Waqf in Muslim life for some reasons, the most significant of which was crusades dispatched by adversaries of the Waqf framework. Waqf has been exposed to broad missions of abolishment; shockingly, the adversaries of Waqf have prevailing with regards to convincing the rulers to drop Waqf and its power over numerous charitable endowments in many Muslim nations. Individuals are not for conventional undertakings, which could be the explanation that Muslims are in a condition of decline. To comprehend Waqf and its roles and duties in Islam, we will dig into the historical backdrop of Waqf in the Islamic world, Waqf in building the Islamic human progress, the purposes behind the decrease of Waqf, and its requirement for change.
Waqf between the past and present
In Islamic history we can see extraordinary pictures and valuable lessons about the status of Waqf and its effect on supporting the advancement of the Muslim community. Waqf was instilled in Muslims’ way of life, and installed in varying backgrounds, and has added to the administration of general society in different zones of advancement and development. Waqf has additionally become a source of funding for Muslims throughout the long term, because of enormous endowments (Awqaf) made by the prophet and his associates. Magda, et al, (2016) called attention to that Waqf covered practically all the necessities of life during the early time of Islamic progress; incorporating wellbeing, schooling, fundamental frameworks, business and commercial activities, job creation and the necessary infrastructure for the hungry and domesticated animals, shelter arrangement for poor and the penniless, supporting the rural and industrial areas with no expense to the public authority. Imam Shafi’ says: “more than eighty men of the companions participated in Waqf!” and Ibn Battuta said:’ Endowments in Damascus were plentiful, uncounted, and unlimited.’
However, current Waqf properties are that of inaction, disregard, and uselessness in practically all Muslim social orders. Besides Waqf job decrease essentially in Muslim society, as per Salman canister Mohammed Al Omari, (2017), ‘we need to change a portion of the negative culture that hits the Muslim people group, and resuscitate the idea Waqf again in our general public’. We investigate the explanations behind the decrease of Waqf and approaches to change and reverse this downturn.
Reasons for decline in Waqf
A peruser of Islamic history will effectively find that the Waqf spoke to significant components in the working of society and individuals. It permitted monetary acknowledge admittance to public interests, for example, teaching students and paying for their studies, founding of clinics or sanctuaries, the allocation of money matters for the development of Mosque, or/and help the destitute. However recently, the role of Waqf has declined, and Muslims who are well of are not in favour of charitable projects.
The need for change
The Waqf has declined fundamentally in the current period. There is not, at this point a spot for asylum or refuge in Muslim nations and work for the people who are unemployed. For Waqf to revisit its past gleam, the chief decision-makers or pioneers need to make a few actions and reforms. As indicated by Samia Al-Saati, (2010), Waqf should be coordinated in a way that the administrations themselves manage the assets. The governments controlling Waqf prompted the hesitance of Muslims to add to the Waqf, as they feel that it has been nationalized and utilized for other than that predefined by the Waqf.
Review of literature
Muhamed Umer Chapra (2008) in his article, “The Muslim world exhibited clear signs of decline by the 18th century; after decades of advancement and prosperity.”
Imam Aamar Jawdah (2016) in his article, “At the end of the 19th century, Muslims were plagued by intellectual, economic, and military invasions. The enemies during those days realized the importance of Waqf in assisting the Muslim communities; thus, they worked hard to eliminate the idea of Waqf and sequester its funds for their own end. They also tighten the laws in many Muslim countries by restricting the practice and supervision of the Waqf.”
Mahdiya Amenouh in his article “The depletion of Waqf creation in the lives of Muslims is due to external and internal factors. The foremost is the negative influences left colonisation of Muslim countries, especially the French, who transferred the Waqf offices from the Muslim governments to higher commissions, and hired non-Muslim advisers to work on their administrative and financial affairs. As a result, they have exhausted the Waqf coffers by paying salaries to those commission and officers.”
The methodology used for this research is analytical and descriptive. Facts on information already available has been analysed and those facts have been used to make an evaluation of the material.Analytical research involves secondary data from various articles and journals.
Waqf is a remarkable demonstration presented by Islam.It has played a critical, financial, social, and strict role since the commencement of Islamic human advancement. Previously, the assortment of enormous number of Awqaf made extraordinary abundance for the Muslim people group.In any case, due to diverse recorded reasons the job of Waqf as a helpful instrument for financial improvement has by and large been disregarded or/and frequently been failed to remember. Evidently, as expressed in this paper, specialists can perceive how Waqf added to the prosperity of the individuals in different zones of improvement. For example, training, wellbeing, and different administrations. In any case, in present-day times, Waqf roles has declined fundamentally. This paper portrays the factor behind the decline of the Waqf, and our need to change it.
European colonization essentially impacted the structure of Waqf in Muslim greater part nations,Muslims government or/and pioneers who abused the Waqf properties, and the helpless administration of Waqf prompted the decay of Waqf itself. In this way, Waqf recovery requires governments who can oversee the assets, reserves straightforwardness, reformulation of the laws overseeing Waqf, and a coordinated organization of sciences that checking issues and issues. The hypothetical ramifications of this investigation is to comprehend Waqf. This examination additionally gives pragmatic commitments to Waqf research by recognizing factors adding to the decline of Waqf and approaches to restore it. There is no exact proof on this, as this paper is just an applied paper. As a component of progressing research, the creators will proceed to investigate this issue. It is recommended that future examination direct a more far reaching examination on variables that prompted Waqfs decrease and approaches to change it.
- Shadiya Mohamed S.,Baqutayan, Aini Suzana Ariffin, Magda Ismail A. Mohsin, Akbariah Mohd Mahdzir (2018), http://archive.sciendo.com/MJSS/mjss.2018.9.issue-4/mjss-2018-0124/mjss-2018-0124.pdf
- Hisham, A. (2015), The role of Islamic instruments in the development and support of the Islamic Waqf https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286645773_Traditional_Islamic_Principles_of_Built_Environment
- Imam Aamar, J. (2016), Islamic endowments between past and present. Available: http://www.rabttaoulema-mr.com/?p=12
- Hossein, E. (2013), The Relationship Between The Waqf Institution In Islamic Law And The Rule Of Law In The Middle East. https://waqfacademy.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/Dr-Hossein-Esmaeili-HE.-Date.-Relationship-between-waqf-institution-in-islamic-law-rule-of-law.pdf