Globalisation as a 'Concept' has become a worldwide approach to development. Although it is not a new phenomenon as we are in the third arena of globalisation. Firstly, it was Authority dominance and military power, second one was Industrial Revolution and third is basically Cyber revolution. According to Thomas L. Friedman carved up the history of globalisation into three periods and that's to say,, Globalisation 1.0 (1491–1800), Globalisation 2.0 (1800–2000) and Globalisation 3.0 (2000–present). He gave voice that Globalisation 1.0 involved the globalisation of countries, on the other hand Globalisation 2.0 involves the globalisation of companies, and Finally, Globalisation 3.0 involves the globalisation of individuals.
Given that, Advances in technology such as mobile phones, airplanes and the internet have made the growth of transport and communication networks faster and more convenient. Countries can exchange information and goods quickly in a less complicated and secured way. One would be keenly interested to better understand the definition of globalisation. So, what is globalisation? Globalisation has been defined by different authors. According to prof. Y Pardhasaradhi, Osmana University, Hyderabad, India. who explained that, Economists view globalisation as an advance step towards a fully integrated world market. Political scientists consider globalisation as a new world order with supranational and global governing bodies while Business Scholars interprets it as unlimited opportunities in a borderless world. Others see globalisation as a phenomenon driven only by the private sector not government. Similarly to many concepts in social science, globalisation as a word also escapes the understanding of it's meaning. Usually, the word globalisation is often mistaken by globalism. However , (Nye, 2002) in his book of Rethinking Globalisation, Globalist Perspective, explained the term globalisms as, nothing more than a world which is characterised by networks of connections that span multi-continental distances and globalisation.
This can be identified as a ‘stretching of social, political and economic activities across political frontiers’; the ‘intensification or the growing magnitude of interconnectedness in every sphere of social existence’; the ‘ac- celebrating pace of global interactions and processes’; and the ‘deepening enmeshment of the local and global’ (McGrew in Baylis and Smith 2005: 22). Farazmand (2007: 13).
However , Malcolm Waters, (2001) contorted globalisation as ‘a social process in which the constraints of geography on economic, political, social and cultural positioning recedes, in which people growly notice that they are moving away and act consequently.
The central focus of the assignment is to take stock of what I have learned in the Introduction to Public Administration Module to discuss why globalization is important in Public Administration. Identify the changing perspective and meaning of globalization in the new millennium. This apparently, has been a scholarly writing both in political and management discussions and also human enquiry all over the world. One of the main topics related to the discussion in this assignment is the Public Administration aspect and globalisation. Relevant academic theories such as the Concept of Globalization, Cosmopolitanisms, and Concluding Observations as evolved during the first part of the Introduction to Public Administration module will be applied.
Concept of Globalization in Public Administration
Whenever we talk about Public Administration we would notice that all Administrations are based on Weber's Bureaucratic Model. such as hierarchical structure, division of Labour, unity of Command and span of control. In any State, the government follows Weber's Bureaucratic Model. But globalisation is changing this type of Organization structure to Network Structure, Cellular Organization, Virtual Organization and Joint Venture and Strategic Alliances. Globalisation has shown a lot of significant impact in Public Administration. Previously we used to see that Public and Private Companies were working together and private companies are learning from the public but now that has changed. Various techniques are learned from the corporate system, private organisation into the government and vice versa. Although all this is happening because globalisation has been incorporated into Public Administration. Essentially, economic in nature, the word globalisation is interpreted in multiple ways which include political, social, and cultural dimensions. Putting it simply, Globalisation can be conceptualised as a ‘tripartite cluster of forces viz. increasing global economic interconnectedness, repositioning of political space and national sovereignty, and last but not least the growing and deepening enmeshment of global and local cultures’ (Held and McGrew 2003). Globalisation has brought a new approach to Public Administration, organisations have become more active, and responsive. Once upon a time, somebody will go to the bank and spend 1:30 minutes to submit a cheque after a long queue to collect his own money. Now because of Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) people can take their money wherever they are and whenever they want in less than 2 Minutes. So globalisation proposes new models that fasten business transactions and share information. It's very important to highlight that Public Administration is changing very fast in the area of globalisation even administration is not an exception on this point. Hence, three remarkable aspects of globalisation can be identified, namely, economic, political, and social/cultural. Here, we shall try to unify the concept in a more communicative or reader friendly mode. Theoretical debate around globalisation is centring around three positions as Waters (2001: 6–7) has shown:(a) that globalisation has been in progress since the dawn of human existence, that it has increased in its effects since that time, but that there has been a sudden and recent accelerations;(b) that globalisation is contemporal with modernisation and the development of capitalism, and that there has been a recent acceleration; or (c) that globalisation is a recent phenomenon associated with other social processes called post industrialisation, modernisation or the disorganisation of capitalism.
Why globalization is important in Public Administration.
First and foremost, whenever we discuss the importance of globalisation in Public Administration, we would see one by one the positive impact it has both on the State and Society. The State first of all is responsible for the regulation of the Economy. We cannot underestimate the role of the State. Although, many authors said in the new world order, end of state or a new form of social organisation, the state continues to persist and is responsible for checking the balances between private and its dominance. At the end we cap globalisation and Public Administration as significant elements that introduced changes structurally, the entire paradigm of public administration had undergone a sea of changes, that is, from a state-controlled and bureaucratically managed paradigm of administration to a more flexible, market-based administration. Unlike what Weber seemed to have suggested, public administration as heuristic type, based on strict adherence of hierarchy, rule-boundedness, neutrality, and impersonality, the globalisation administration had reposed maximum faith on decentralisation of authority, flattening of hierarchies, slimming of bureaucracy, and so on (Bhattacharya 2001) Interacting with the globe for economic development as to what to import and export as now become much easier and faster. Transfer of modern management techniques: it's not like the previous management models where government and society would have a single window system. However, Expanding infrastructure because of globalisation and Public Administration, the global companies can invest in some of the countries of their choice infrastructure would be expanded and poverty would be drastically reduced
Another important philosophical source of the concept of global justice is cosmopolitanism which is two-joint words. Cosmos and Polis. 'Cosmos' stands for the world as a whole and 'Polis' meaning a self governing political entity.The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy has defined cosmopolitanism in the following words. The definition shared by all cosmopolitan views is the idea that all human beings, regardless of their political involvement , do (or at least can) belong to a single community, and that this community must be refined and well educated. Different versions of cosmopolitanism visualize this community in different manners, some focusing on political institutions, others on moral norms and values and still others focusing on shared markets or forms of cultural expression. Generally speaking, there are two versions of cosmopolitanism, namely, consequentialist cosmopolitanism and human rights cosmopolitanism. In fact, unlike the nationalists who have an un- adulterated obligation to members of the nation, cosmopolitans believe that national borders have nothing to do with our moral obligations to others as all human beings have equal moral value (McKinnon 2008). The term is practiced by NGOs such as Amnesty International and Human Right Watch. However, it's quite difficult to identify human rights equally, a typical example I would like to pass is people from Europe responding to terrorisms than people in Syria. According to cosmopolitan vision (2006) by Ulrich Beck portray cosmopolitanisms as a necessary response to globalised word order causing global crises like climate change. Beck's work has been criticised by Robert J Hoiton cosmopolitanisms (2009) who pointed out that globalisation or global crises is not historically new. Adding that it's important to have in mind as a political scientist that an increase in globalisation does not necessarily create openness in the political climate.
In summary we can understand Cosmopolitanisms as practised by individuals with fundamentally equal rights and obligations toward each other. A cosmopolitan world view includes an intercultural openness and inclusiveness. Finally, Cosmopolitanism as an ideology and worldview is extremely difficult to truly and fully practise.
Globalisation can simply promote and increase interactivity between unalike regions and populations around the globe. Hence the need to globalise is essential.What is important is to realise that globalisation is good ,it all depends on how people deal with the possibilities in the future. The process has an effect on Public Administration and human and physical well being around the world as transporting goods across international borders is constantly on the increase. However , not only exchange of product and economic goods take place but also services, Knowledge and even culture. All these individual elements are closely linked and influence each other
Globalisation and Public Administration has been associated with contribution to a significant fall in extreme poverty, mainly in developing and underdeveloped countries. Example if a company decides to move production to an economically disadvantaged country, people in this country would secure jobs. Again, the idea of globalisation for States to build a deeper division of labour and build a global supply chain to optimise factors of production worldwide is the thing that they are best at is of paramount importance . Globalisation linked with public administration has brought a dynamic efficiency gain flowing from transfer of ideas, skills and technology that stimulates the process of innovation
On this paper, globalisation and Public Administration are considered positive by managerial view, looking into Administrative theory exclusively from the viewpoint of managers. globalization also had a powerful impact on the public administration, researchers and university which is an important role and it could help countries to sustain themselves strong economically and financially, while the well-developed countries have remarkable advantages regarding the transnational corporations and the supranational global organizations.
- Waters, Malcolm. 2001. Globalization (2nd edition). London, New York: Routledge.
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- Macmillan International Higher Education, 28 May 2009 - Political Science Accessed on the 28th/10/2020 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRzcqI_1Gkw