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Worldwide Problem of Child Labor: Critical Analysis

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The project is about a very questionable issue child labor. This report talks about worldwide problem of child labor and how different countries are exploiting children by making children work for longer hours and gaining benefits out of it. Child labor is a multi-dimensional issue. There are four main sections in this report the first and foremost section talks about the detailed introduction of the dilemma and the report itself. The next section is based on the facts and figures about the topic. The third part of the report provides the result and consequences of this problem along with statistical details graphs and tables whereas the last part of the report gives a conclusion and recommendations about getting rid of this problem.


The rise of labor in the United States began in the 1700s and late 1800s. When the Industrial Revolution began, many families had to find someone to work or they would not survive. When European immigrants arrived they were no strangers to hard work. When they arrive they bring ideas or values that children should work on. This is where the kids start working. Many families moved from rural areas to newly developed cities. When it all started it started to increase and no one was bothered when the children were not getting a low education. In 1900, two million children were working to make their families healthy.

The emergence of child labor in big cities is the lifeblood of unhealthy families and economic instability. Families struggling with financial difficulties cannot cope with the growing needs of their children and sometimes fail to produce enough food.

Statement Of Problem/Purpose:

The purpose of writing this report solely includes eliminating the dangers of child labour and provide the children with their basic rights. Worldwide 218 million children between 5 and 17 years are working. Among them, 152 million are stuck of child labour 73 million, are victims to hazardous child labour. Half of all 152 million children victims of child labour are between 5-11 years, 42 million (28%) are 12-14 years old; and 37 million (24%) are 15-17 years old. Hazardous child labour is mostly observed among the 15-17 years old. Whereas up to a fourth of all hazardous child labour (19 million) (8%) is done by children less than 12 years old.

Figure1:age wise distribution percentage

Significance Of The Study:

The report signifies the rights of the children that are victims of child labour. It emphasizes on the emerging growth of this deadly weed in the world. It will provide a detailed study along with facts and figures disclosing the consequences of the increase in child labour. This growing problem is widely found all over the world but its roots are the steadiest in poor and underdeveloped countries. According to ILO, Eritrea, Somalia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Myanmar, Sudan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Zimbabwe and Yemen as the 10 places where child labor is most hazardous. The main purpose of this report to alarm the concerned departments of the countries and world organizations about the rights of these children and provide at least basic necessities for them.

Scope Of Study:

Nelson Mandela, once said, “There can be no keener revelation of a society’s soul than the way it treats its children”

What causes child labor, and what are the consequences of it? What interventions can prevent termination of children from harming children? It will cover all the aspects that the children have to go through in order to provide for themselves and their families. Moreover, further problems originating from this particular problem will also be discussed. This detailed study on child labour will be an authentic source for the concerned authorities and the people to make effective decisions in order to eliminate this crisis.

Limitations Of The Study:

Writing and studying about this report revealed that although the ongoing decline in child labor is about 30% since 2000, progress has been slow. At current levels, more than 100 million children will still be employed by this year i.e. 2020. The continued decline in child labor poses a threat to the global economy and global values and has had serious short-term and long-term consequences for the realization of children’s rights, including stopping of education and exposure to violence. Child labor is preventable but unavoidable.

Literature Related To Child Labour:

The present section aims to explain the various meanings of child and child labor work that is prevalent in the literature and reviews how children often work at low wages countries.


  1. Combating Child Labour, Autor: International Labour Organization (Ilo). Figure2:Combating Child Labour. This Work Examines The Developments Against Child Labour And The Defense Of The Rights Of Children.
  2. The World Of Child Labour, Author: Hugh D.Hindman. Figure3: The World Of Child Labour. This Book Tells The Present And Past State Of Child Labor In Each Region Of The World, Entailing On Its Causes, Consequences, And Cures.
  3. Child Labour In Globalized World, Author: Ilo. Figure4: Child Labour In Globalized World. This Book Examines The Legal Dimension Of The Ilo’s Work And Struggle In The Field Of Child Labour.


  1. Figure5: article 1
  2. Figure6: article 2

Data Sources and Methodology:

The 2000-2019 estimates use data from a comprehensive 105 household survey covering 70 percent of the world’s population of young people aged 5 to 17. All regions of the world are covered, and details from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and countries in China are included for the first time. Information from organizations such as The ILO United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the US Agency for International Development (USAID)’s research and health program, the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat)) is used. The mathematical work and statistics of ILO and The United States Department of Labor has also been used.

Result and Discussions:

Child Labour: a Threatening Dilemma

Children aged 5 to 11 years form the largest share of these in child labour and also form a considerable share of this hazardous work. Forty-eight per cent of all those in child labour are within the 5–11 years age group, 28 percent are aged 12–14 years, and 25 percent fall under the 15–17 years age range. Younger children constitute an alarming share of total children in hazardous work. 1 / 4 of all children within the hazardous work group – 19 million children in absolute terms – are aged 5-11 years

Cause and Consequences:

The major cause of child labour includes:

  1. children’s rights are not respected
  2. compulsory, free and accessible education is not provided by governmets
  3. the education system excludes poor and vulnerable children
  4. employers can benefit from cheap labour
  5. there is no decent work for adults (unemployment)

Sectors Percentage child labour



Industry 70.9%



Table 1: sector-wise distribution

Recent international estimates based on facts of UNICEF, the ILO and the World Bank indicate that 168 million youngsters aged five to 17 are engaged in child labour. Millions of them suffer within the other worst sorts of child labour, along with slavery and slavery-like practices such as compelled and bonded labour and child soldiering, sexual exploitation, or are utilized by adults in illicit activities, such as drug trafficking.

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Despite a steady decline in child labour, progress is a long way too slow. At modern-day rates, more than one hundred million children will nonetheless be trapped in child labour by way of 2021. The continuing endurance of this labour poses a risk to national economies and has intense negative and long term consequences for the fulfillment of children’s rights and also the economy of the countries.

Number of child labours percentage of child labours Number of child labours in hazardous work percentage of child labours in hazardous work

Low income 65 203 19.4% 29664 8.8%

Lowe middle 58184 8.5% 33465 4.9%

Upper middle 26209 6.6% 7751 2.0%

High income 2025 1.1% 1645 1.0%

Table 2: Child labour and hazardous work by national income

Figure7: percentage decline in child labour till date

The 10 countries in worst condition in 2019 are:

  1. North Korea Somalia
  2. South Sudan
  3. Eritrea
  4. Central African Republic
  5. Sudan
  6. Venezuela
  7. Papua New Guinea
  8. Chad
  9. Mozambique

Child labor is widespread in many fields – if countries do not take action, it would prove itself to be a destruction of youth as well as the economy.

Figure8: regional breakdown by population

Figure9: child labour risk rate percentage due

While in some countries a large proportion of working children are able to attend school at least part-time, this is not always the case, more than one-third of children aged 7 to 14 work, and half of working children do not attend school. Some countries such as Pakistan have very little share of working children, but most of them are out of school.

Figure10(1): children in employment, (portion of children working vs. studying vs. doing both)

Figure10(2): children in employment, (portion of children working vs. studying vs. doing both)


Children are a valuable human resource of the nation. The future well-being of a country depends upon how its children grow and develop, the great poet Milton said:

“Child Shows the man as morning shows the day”

It is therefore the duty of the society to take care of the children and each of them, to ensure the full development of their personality.

In conclusion, child labour is a major issue within the entire world. Numerous have misplaced their childhood because of it. Many have got harmed either mentally or physically because of it. With the advancement in the rights of the children, child labour ought to be prohibited in the modern world to rescue the future of the youth as well as the world itself.

“Poverty is a great enemy to human happiness; it certainly destroys liberty, and it makes some virtues impracticable and others extremely difficult”.

The issue of child labour can be uprooted with only after understanding the real cause behind children working in the industries. The children should be given the confidence to speak up for themselves and say no to child labour.


It is a harsh reality that the country where children are regarded as the future are forced to work for money. In short, cultural and economic factors combine in the world to encourage children not of age to work. Following course of action can be effective to fight this problem.

  • The government has made it compulsory for all children under the age of age e.g. Under 18 etc. they have to go to school and not agree to not work or work anywhere.
  • The government should at least cover the child’s expenses for some years. As the practice continues in many countries
  • Families should be aware of the separation of children and their children’s rights to have shelter, food, clothing and education so parents should be aware of these rights and should do everything possible to provide them with child labor and be avoided.
  • Those who force children to work should be punished.
  • Educate and encourage the poor to have more children.
  • In addition, laws can be brought in to ensure that when young people enter the workforce, they are not allowed to work more than a certain number of hours and are paid minimum wage.
  • Studies show repeatedly that providing free and good education to all children around the world helps reduce child labor incidents

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Worldwide Problem of Child Labor: Critical Analysis. (2022, March 17). Edubirdie. Retrieved June 10, 2023, from
“Worldwide Problem of Child Labor: Critical Analysis.” Edubirdie, 17 Mar. 2022,
Worldwide Problem of Child Labor: Critical Analysis. [online]. Available at: <> [Accessed 10 Jun. 2023].
Worldwide Problem of Child Labor: Critical Analysis [Internet]. Edubirdie. 2022 Mar 17 [cited 2023 Jun 10]. Available from:
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