Yeast In Biotechnology
Yeast is one of the eukaryote cane be defined as unicellular fungi.Yeast is commonly used in biotechnology with successful applications due to its highly advantages features such as proper posttranslational modification, fast growth, simple genetic manipulation, high biomass concentration and safe pathogen-free production[1, 2].They involve production of several fermentation output such as alcohol, fermented milk and condiments, detailed in figure 1. Yeast expression system can be classified into two parts: Non-methylotropic and methylotropic yeast. While methylotropic yeast involve methanol-utilizing pathway, non-methylotropic yeast vice versa . Methylotropic yeast are Pichia pastoris,Hansenula polymorphia and Candida boidinii, non-methylotropic yeast are Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Yarrowia lipolytica and Kluyveromyces lactis . However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is favored more in industry because of known genetic and physiological background, the availability of a large collection of genetic tools, the compatibility of high-density and large-scale fermentation, and optimize the pathway for variety of products . Yeast are favorable eukaryotic microorganism used in food industry, imprinting, protein production, genetic analysis, biofuel production and therapeutic applications (figure 1). Horecker (1978) defined as yeast ‘a great hope for the survival of civilization on this planet’ due to ability of obtaining fuel from renewable carbohydrate fermentation feedstocks of yeast.
Yeast are paramount for production of recombinant protein and mosltly are preferred compare to E.coli and other eukaryotic systems. There is a capacity of this organism to grow in medium lack of animal derived growth factor and they can produce large amount of recombinant protein with cheaper way . Yeast have less complex expression system compare with other eukaryotic organism such as Chinese hamster ovary cells and baculovirus-infected cell lines . Also, manufacturing of recombinant protein cannot be obtain on E.coli due to folding problems or need of glycolisation and yeast can express proteins at very highs scale, as wel as mammalian proteins with the example of that Pichia pastoris could produce 14.8 g/l gelatin . Heterogeneous protein can aggregate in bacteria cells, leading to loss of 3D structure of protein. Among eukaryotic system, yeast can have advantage of unicellular organism and it is approved by Food and Drug Administration FDA, called generally regarded as safe (GRAS) . Beside this, durability of the product, stable production strains, maintaining of S-S rich proteins can be count as advantages of yeast expression system .
Yeast become popular progressively due to aforementioned advantages compare to prokaryotic and other eukaryotic expression system. They have been used in production of acid, biofuel, some organic and natural compound for several purposes for years.
Yeast take role in production of several product that is varied between fermented mil product and alcoholic beverages. Product change based on yeast type and mixed culture fermentation. Yeast elevate bioactive compound thanks to enzyme or metabolite. They can utilize in variety of food application in industry such as they can used as probiotics, producing of some enzyme that is essential for production of some food for high value nutraceuticals (medical foods) , cell wall compounds and release some extracellular bioactive metabolites, summarized in figure 2 . Mostly, Brettanomyces (its perfect stage, Dekkera ) , Candida, Cryptococcus, Debaryomyces, Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Hansenula, Hanseniaspora (its asexual counterpart Kloeckera ), Hyphopichia, Kluyveromyces, Metschnikowia, Pichia, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces, Saccharomycodes, Saccharomycopsis, Schizosaccharomyces, Torulopsis, Trichosporon, Yarrowia and Zygosaccharomyces take role in food industry.
Probiotic food is another version of supplement to improve health. To date, most of the studies done by bacteria to produce probiotics, however, yeast take advantages more than bacteria due to bigger cell size of bacteria and resist to antibiotics more . There are several researches done to generate probiotics. In those studies, K. marxianus CIDCA 8154 produced probiotic and showed anti-inflammatory ,and in another study, K.marxianus AS41 probiotic exhibited pro-apoptotic effect . Recent study prove that probiotics done by yeast showed anti-cancer impact as well . Beside this, yeast are employed to manufacture β-glucan which is important to obtain functional food content .To date, S. cerevisiae come to prominence to generate β-glucans [18-20].According to some reports, β-glucan improve immune system, elevate probiotic bacteria presence and has good antioxidant performance [18, 21, 22]. In addition to that, yeast involve in production of bioactive compound to elevate function of the food. γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and carotenoids are main product that can be produced by Sporobolomyces carnicolor 402-JB-1, P. silvicola UL6-1, S. cerevisiae to enrich ingredient of fermented foods [23-25]. Yeats also has impact on wine making. Saccharomyces strains has big role in wine fermentation compare to other yeast due to that other species has less fermentation ability and higher production of CO2 and alcohol, heat during fermentation favors the formation of a selective environment ideal for Saccharomyces strains . Yeast provide most of ethanol in wine ,proper color of wine, enrich of wine and synthesis of some flavor such as ethyl and acetate ester .
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