Zika Virus And The Drivers Of Emerging Infectious Diseases
Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) are referred to as diseases that are newly recognized or diseases whose incidence has increased over time. It may be a disease that we know of and that still persists. When some of these diseases do not directly affect us, these diseases are not given attention and are ignored. The significance of the Environment, Vector, and the Host play a pivotal role in predicting and managing diseases. A disease might be a focus of renewed concern because their may be a genetic change, which can make the disease more serious, become resistant to antibiotics, or the disease might move into new communities. People who would be carrying the disease would easily spread it to more vulnerable people, and that would require a high level of herd immunity to prevent it from spreading.
A few drivers of emerging infectious diseases have contributed to the re-emergence andspread of the Zika Virus. Over time, an epidemic of Zika has spread throughout North and South, “estimating 3.9 billion people at risk” (Shragai, T., Tesla, B., Murdock, C., & Harrington, L. C., 2017). The growing burden of the Zika virus has raised questions about how the disease itself, its transmission routes, and people’s behaviours have evolved as it spread into new areas and places that were never thought of being encountered. This mosquito-borne virus infection has spread because of the living intermediate, known as the vector. To define its environment, the biotic and abiotic factors of the disease agent have a major influence on the host, which involve humans and animals in a particular type of climate in a defined environment.
Climate change has contributed to the re-emergence of Zika virus. Environmental drivers such as “temperature, humidity, and rainfall patterns” have induced the transmission itself (Shragai et al., 2017). When the mosquito interacts with the abiotic environment, factors such as “climate, water storage, and urbanization and land use” come into play when the mosquito comes into contact with them (Shragai et al., 2017). Interactions with the biotic environment, including “competitors, the number of hosts available, and human movement and change” are the living intermediates’ sources for progression (Shragai et al., 2017). How “competent the vector is, its resistance to insecticides, its life history and its host preferences” are factors that make up the geographic variation in the mode of transmission (Shragai et al., 2017). The disease agents’ “capacity to transmit disease, its abundance, and its distribution” then contribute to the overall level of global disease transmission of the Zika virus (Shragai et al., 2017).
The type of environment is also an important part because it poses as the vectors’ breeding grounds, particularly still water. It creates space for the vector population to flourish in the natural ecosystem. Along with the environment, poverty is associated with higher risk of infectious disease. It may lead to “inadequate vector control and prevention programs and negligible healthcare infrastructure” (Mavian et. al, 2019). Warming temperatures and more rainfall contribute to the re-emergence of the Zika virus because the vector can easily adapt to its surroundings and produce in high amounts in warmers temperatures. This is a result of climate change and global warming. Human demographics and behaviour is another driver that contributes to the re-emergence of the Zika virus. The movement of humans throughout history has introduced certain species into certain populations. Activities such as “deforestation due to human settlement and agriculture, involving irrigation” affect the transmission and increased production of mosquitos (Mavian et. al, 2019).
It also all depends on the size of the population, meaning the larger and denser the population is, the faster the Zika virus can spread. Tropical islands in the Pacific and Indian Ocean inhibit a tropical climate, with hot and humid weather, abundant rainfall, and a wet and dry season, therefore mosquitos are more likely able to develop and adapt to their surroundings in this particular climate and weather. As the Zika virus’ “incubation period is 3-12 days”, it is an “epidemic in the Caribbean, Central and South America” (Poulakou & Plachouras, 2016). Characteristics of the Zika virus, particularly people at risk, include travelers and residents. There had been a reported “sexual transmission of the Zika virus around June 14, 2016 in central america” (Poulakou & Plachouras, 2016).
There are many types of vectors that transmit disease between two hosts, generally can be divided into biological and mechanical transmission, however, Mosquito is the most common one that responsible of transmission of many deadliest diseases such as: Malaria, Dengue fever, Chikungunya and Zika. There are 3,500 types of mosquitoes, but research has confirmed that female mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of diseases because they feed on human blood, unlike the male who feeds on the nectar of flowers....
Abstract Zika virus mosquito-borne flavivirus is the focal point of a continuous pandemic and open wellness crisis. Recently limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the development of Zika infection in Brazil in 2015 proclaimed fast spread all through the Americas. Most Zika virus contaminations are portrayed by subclinical or moderate flu-like disease, serious appearances were depicted, which incorporate Guillain-Barre disorder in grown-ups and microcephaly in infants destined to tainted mothers. Neither a ground-breaking treatment nor an antibody is...
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne virus in the member of the Flaviviridae family, genus Flavivirus. The virus was first found in 1947 in the blood of a monkey in Uganda’s Zika Forest giving the virus its name. There are two lineages of the Zika virus, African and Asia. The Asian strain caused outbreaks in Micronesia in 20019 and French Polynesia in 2013-2014. (White, Wollebo, David Beckham, Tyler, & Khalili, 2016) Zika was transmitted originally in a sylvatic cycle...
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Zika virus (ZIKV) is a vector born disease that was discovered in Ugandan monkeys in the 1940s. It was not until the 1950s that it was found that ZIKV was transmittable to humans. Mosquitos transmit it when they bite humans. This disease is more common in tropical warm climates where mosquitos are plentiful. Unlike most mosquito-borne diseases, ZIKV can be spread through sexual transmission giving this virus a larger swath of transmission possibilities (Hinkle, Brunner, Cheever, & Suddarth, 2014, p....
Abstract ZIKV as an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus, belonging to the family of flavivirde.(1-3) The rapid geographical expansion and the rampant effect of zika virus (ZIKV) in the recent years have posed serious threat to human life, which lead World Health Organization to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) against this flavivirus in 2016.(4) Binding and fusion of a virus with the host membrane is the first and one of the most crucial steps in the...
Causes The Zika virus is mainly spread through the bite of an infected female Aedes aegypti or Aedes albopictus mosquito (vector). This virus was first noticed in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947, but over time there have been reports of Zika outbreaks in southeastern and southern Asia, the Pacific Islands and the Americas. Statistics It is hard to say how many people have the virus but it’s estimated that around 120 million people in Brazil are at risk...
Introduction to the Zika virus: The Zika virus (ZIKV) was discovered in 1947 in Uganda and named after the Zika forest. ZIKV is classified as a flavivirus, denoting a family of viruses that are arthropod-borne, enveloped, and contain RNA as their genomic material. The Zika virus is transmitted by the Aedes mosquito, commonly found along the equatorial belt stretching from Africa to Asia (Gorshkov et al, 2018). ZIKV replicates in the mosquitos’ gut epithelial cells and salivary glands and remains...
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