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Chicago Citation Guide: How to Cite in Chicago Style

First presented in 1906, Chicago style citation takes honorary place of most respected and commonly accepted writing formats for American English. Already reaching 17th edition, Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) is used for both research papers and manuscripts that are ready for being published. Still, majority of college and university students in the USA find it challenging when it comes to correct citing. In order to make citation work easier, we offer Chicago citation maker that can easily handle most source types.

What makes Chicago styling difficult for students is its usage of two different citation patterns that are applied depending on subject. If one has to deliver papers for History, Literature, and Arts, most college professors recommend using “Notes-Bibliography” style. Physics, Social and Natural Sciences subjects require classic “Author-Date” citation. Even though it might sound confusing in the beginning, our practical Chicago style guide with examples will help you see how each rule works in practice.

Footnotes, Notes and In-Text Citing in Chicago Format

In our guide, we provide both citing patterns, so one can see specifics when using notes. An important point is that when certain source is mentioned, a note or footnote should be placed with corresponding number. A superscript numbering is used for such purposes.

When using notes for second or any subsequent time, full publication details are not included, as one will see in templates.

– Footnote or an endnote citation:

1 First Last name, Book (Publication: Publisher, Publication year), page number.

If there is one author for a print book

Last, First name. Book. Publication location: Publisher, year.

When citing in-text, first source mentioning only implements corresponding number. In following parenthetical citing, use these examples:

….which has helped to support (Dawnes, 2004, 12).
In a 2004 report, Dawnes (112) has helped to support social research based on…

Two book author citation

(Kern and Wilders, 2002, 121)

Three book authors citation

(Curtis, Frank, and Zachary 2012, 34)

Four or more book authors

(Jansen et al. 2017, 213)

Organization as an author citation

Provide organization, source title or abbreviation:

(NATO 2000, 134)
(“Polar Bears Safety”, 2004, 12)

Unknown author

(“Red Tower History” 2015, 32)

Unknown page number Chicago citation

(Harris, 2016, para. 2:34)

Unknown date citing

(Hicks, n.d., 118)

Multi-volume book source

(Ryan, 2005, 2:35)

Authors with same last name

(Clang R. 2010 and Clang S. 2011)

Two or more works by same author, same year

Add corresponding letter after publishing year:

(Marx 2010a) and (Marx 2010b)

Books with editors Chicago citation

According to latest Chicago manual, “ed.” part is not required, just provide:

(Heinz 1998, 45)

Multiple sources in same citation

(Jagger 2011, 21; Gilmour 2012, 738)

Indirect in-text citation

(quoted in Paster 2015, 12)

Webpage, social media or source citation

For footnotes in Chicago citation, number is added when citing in-text. In “Author-Date”, same rules are applied as with print sources. Major difference relates to Bibliography part.

Creating My Bibliography and Reference Chicago Examples

All references in Chicago style bibliography are arranged alphabetically based on author’s last names. If author is unknown, sort sources by title first word.

Books /

One author

Author. Book: Subtitle. Place where published: Publisher, Year.

Vedder, Edward. Mental Searching: Social Psychology. Miami: Major Books, 2001.

For citing a full note, use:

1. Author First Name/Initial Surname, Book Title: Subtitle (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number.

Edward Vedder, Mental Searching: Social Psychology (Miami: Major Books, 2001), 27.

For all following notes:

2 Vedder, Mental Searching: Social Psychology, 27.

Citing more than one author

Author1, and Author2. Book: Subtitle. Place of Publication: Publishing house, Year.

Jorg, Michael, and Tom A. Sawyer. Adventures in Business Negotiations: Third Party.
London: Penguin Books, 2006.

For Chicago footnote citation, use:

1. Author1 and Author2, Book: Subtitle (Place of Publication: Publishing house, Year), page number.

Michael Stark and John Wells, School Education Online: E-Books (New York: Turner Publishing, 2007), 34-39.

For all following notes:

2 Stark and Wells, School Education Online: E-Books, 34.

Book with editor

Author. ‘Chapter’. In Book, edited by Editor Name(s), page range. Place where published: Publishing house, Year.

Craig, Daniel. ‘Visual Magic’. In Cinematic Science, edited by Edward Pilzner, 18-36. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

For notes:
1 Author’s Name, ‘Chapter’, in Book, ed. Editor Name(s) (Place of Publication:
Publisher, Year), page number(s).

1 Daniel Craig, ‘Visual Magic’, in Cinematic Science, ed. Edward Pilzner (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005), 27.

Second and later citing:

1 Craig, ‘Visual Magic’, 27.

Referencing a chapter in a book

Author. “Chapter or Article.” In Book: Subtitle, edited by Editor First Name Surname, page range of article/chapter. Publication location: Publisher, Year.

Secada, John. “Field Crops.” in UFO and Modern Myths: Logic and Reason, edited by William Stone, 32-37. Amsterdam: Elsevier Books, 2005.

For citing a full note, use:

1. Author, “Chapter or Article,” in Book: Subtitle, ed. Editor (Where published: Publisher, Year), page number.

1 John Secada, “Field Crops Revealed,” in Modern Myths: Logic and Reason, edited by William Stone (Amsterdam: Elsevier Books, 2005), 32.

For all following notes:

Secada “Field Crops Revealed,” 32.

E-Book Citing (Kindle)

Same rules apply as for printed sources with reference to publisher, database or website found.

Simmons, Gene. “Healthcare in Uganda” , edited by Axel Seversen, 37. Penguin Books Kindle,

For citing a full note, use:

1 Gene Simmons, “Healthcare in Uganda”, edited by Axel Seversen, 37 (London: Penguin
Books Kindle Edition, 2005): 37,

For all following notes:

Simmons, “Healthcare in Uganda”, 37.

Bible Citing

When citing the Bible, do not use italics or abbreviations. Bible is not included in Bibliography part. For in-text quoting, see below:

1 Cor. 13:7, 14:11-13.
Gn 1:2-4, 2:2-7; Cor 13:2-8.

Specify version and abbreviation for notes like:

1. PS. 139-12-14 (NRSV).


Article references

Author. “Article.” Journal. Volume, no. Issue (Year): Page range of cited article.

Drew, Nancy. “Forensic Experience: Deductive Method.” Forensic Archives 21, no. 3
(2004): 14.

Full note reference:

1. Nancy Drew, “Forensic Experience: Deductive Method,” Forensic Archives 21, no. 3 (2004): 14.

Second note:

2. Drew, “Forensic Experience,” 14.

DOI Article Reference

Last, First Name. “Article.” Journal. Volume, issue. Number (Year): pages. DOI: xx.xxxx/xxxx

Amber, Linda. “College Roommates.” Social Conflicts 12, no. 34 (2006): 259-282. Doi:

For note:

1 First Last Name, “Article,” Journal. Volume, issue. Number (Year): pages, DOI:

Linda Amber, “College Roommates,” Social Conflicts 12, no. 34 (2006): 259, doi:

For notes that follow:

1. Amber. “College Roommates,” 259.


First/Last Name, “Title,” Newspaper, Month Day, Year, accessed month day, year.

Sandy Wild, “Urban Troubled Youth,” New York Times, January 14, 2009, accessed April 2,

Lectures and presentations

Lecturer. “Lecture.” Lecture, Location of Lecture, Month Day, Year of Lecture.

Leiton, Warren. “Sociology Introduction.” Lecture, London, July 17, 2005.

For notes:

1. Lecturer, “Lecture,” (lecture, Location of Lecture, Month Day, Year of Lecture).

1 Warren Leiton, “Sociology Introduction,” (Lecture, London, July 17, 2005).

Following notes:

Leiton, “Sociology Introduction.”

Online Content /

Webpage with an author

Author1 and Author2. “Webpage.” University or Location. Accessed Month Day, Year. URL.

Stark, C. N., and T. E. Bates. “South African Tribes.” Miami Flocks University Archive.
Accessed July 19, 2018.

For note:

1. C. N. Stark and T.E. Bates. “South African Tribes,” Miami Flocks University Archive,
accessed July 19, 2018,

Following notes:

2. Stark and Bates, “South African Tribes.”


Last, First Name [or username if no author specified] (@handle). Year. “Full tweet text.” Twitter, Month day, year, time posted. URL.

Bullock, Sandra (@bullocksandra). 2009. “Growing up in Montessori School, I learned how to
adapt to life.” Twitter, June 15, 2009, 7:02PM.


Last, First Name (or organization where applicable). Year. “Text of first post sentence or
phrase shared on Facebook post.” Facebook, Month day, year posted. URL.

Harvard Business School Archive. 2018. “Educational Tendencies.” Facebook, March 8, 2018.


Last, First Name [or single username] (@handle). Year. “Text first sentence specified or signal key phrase used in Instagram post.” Instagram, Month day, year posted. URL.

See this example:

Beatles Literary Analysis (@fab4literature). 2015. “Lennon’s handwriting decrypted in R
sounds” Instagram, May 14, 2018.


When citing video content from Youtube:

Last, First Name [or username]. “Video Title.” Online video. Day month year
posted. YouTube.

Animals in Wild Nature. “Panda feeding patterns” YouTube video, 12:32, August 9, 2017.

Audio / Video / Images

Citing films in print

“Scene Title or Number.” Motion Picture or Documentary Title. Directed by Director. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Format.

“Running Through London.” Sherlock Diaries. Directed by Andy Wallace. London: Universal UK, 2005. Motion Picture.

For notes use:

1. “Scene Title or Number,” Motion Picture or Documentary Title, directed by Director (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Format.

1 “Running Through London,” Sherlock Diaries, directed by Andy Wallace. (London: Universal
UK, 2005), Motion Picture.

Following notes:

“Running Through London.”

Citing Musical Recording

Performer/Band. Album. Record label Number of recording, Year of recording, format.

Unheilig. Geboren um zu Leben. Trisol Group, Tri02317, 2016, compact disc.

Photo / Image Citation

Images from electronic resources


Author Surname, First Name. Image Title. Year. Medium. size. Museum or place image can be found, Location, URL.

Berry, Oscar. Volunteering in NYC. 2004. Photography. 640×480. Arlington Archive. New York


1. Author, Image, Year, medium, size, Museum or place, Location, URL.

1 Oscar Berry, Volunteering in NYC, 2004, Photography, 640×480, Arlington Archive, New York Gallery,

If image comes from print source


Author Surname, First Name or Initial. Image Title. Year Photo was Taken (if available). In Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year, page or plate #.

Wilde, Kim, R. First Recording Session. 1986. in Culture of 1980s. London: Warner Group, 1989, 34.


1. Author, Image, Year Photo was Taken (if available), in Book (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page or plate #.

1 Kim Wilde, First Recording Session, 1986, in Culture of 1980s (London: Warner Group, 1989),

Academic Sources / Interviews

Governmental documents

If source cited is in print, reference it like any other document, dissertation or report.

An URL should be added. When citing first note, provide all identifying information same as in Bibliography page.

Seattle Forensic Bureau. Bureau of Criminology. Criminal Database Template. Seattle,
WA: Seattle Dept. of Criminology, Division of Forensic Research, Bureau of Investigation, 2006.


Author. “Interview’s title.” Interview by Name, Last Name. Program,
Organization, Date. Audio, Time (xx:xx). URL.

King, Larry. “Cold War Ethics.” Interview by William James. Tonight Host Show, CNBC, April 7,
2011. Audio, 32:26.

For note:

1 Larry King, “Cold War Ethics,” Interview by William James, Tonight Host Show, CNBC,
April 7, 2011, Audio, 32:26.

For notes that follow:

1 King, interview.

Reference Materials

Cite an Encyclopedia / Dictionary

Last Name, First Name. Encyclopedia/Dictionary name, Edition ed., “Article Title.”
Publication City: Publisher Name, Year Published.

Sanders, Jake. Encyclopedia Britannica, 7th ed., “Micro-sociology.” Chicago:
Encyclopedia Britannica, 2008.

Importance of Citing in Chicago

Writing an academic assignment in Sociology or Arts paper, even most common ideas and arguments should be supported by academic sources to make research reliable. A reason why citing is important is avoidance of plagiarism. Generally, research paper can include from 10 to 15 diverse sources that include books, academic journals, and different media. It is no wonder that even the best college students easily get confused and spend hours with diverse sources as they cite Chicago style. To make citation easier and faster, we offer Chicago citation maker as it helps with:

  • Automatic and manual citation styles where available information can be entered by hand.
  • Choosing between resource types.
  • “Date and Author” and “Notes” citations generated.
  • Chicago style citation generator helps to avoid plagiarism as machine documents each source in correct way.
  • Free 24/7 online help with no ads or registering.


Is Turabian format the same as Chicago?

No, it is not the same because Turabian is alike to simplified version of Chicago. Chicago Manual of Style can maintain complex and professional research papers that can be
published later on. Turabian, even though based on CMOS, has less rules and is more accessible for high school students and colleges.

What are Bibliography page requirements?

Start Bibliography page from new document’s page. “Bibliography” should be centered at the top. Use Times New Roman, 12 point font. List sources alphabetically. If no author is provided, use titles.

What are cover page rules?

Start with title center alignment. It should begin approximately half down your document. Following lines should include professor, course, and paper’s date. Each line should be centered. Page numbers are not used in Chicago’s cover page. Title page does not include word count, if not told otherwise.

Where to insert multimedia sources and in what order?

As a rule, Chicago style citations should be listed alphabetically. Books and articles, as long as they come from print resources, can be listed together. However, if there are multimedia sources
like audio, video, and images, they should be listed in a separate list.

What are fonts and indents rules for page layout?

  • Implement 1” margins at sides, bottom, and top of each page.
  • Times New Roman, 12 point font
  • Use double spacing for all paper’s text.